The pia mater: a comprehensive review of literature

  title={The pia mater: a comprehensive review of literature},
  author={Nimer Adeeb and Martin M. Mortazavi and Aman Deep and Christoph J. Griessenauer and Koichi Watanabe and Mohammadali M. Shoja and Marios Loukas and R. Shane Tubbs},
  journal={Child's Nervous System},
IntroductionThe pia mater has received less attention in the literature compared to the dura and arachnoid maters. However, its presence as a direct covering of the nervous system and direct relation to the blood vessels gives it a special importance in neurosurgery.MethodA comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to study all that we could find relating to the pia mater, including history, macro- and microanatomy, embryology, and a full description of the related structures… 

The filum terminale internum and externum: A comprehensive review

Tentorium Cerebelli: Muscles, Ligaments, and Dura Mater, Part 1

The article is divided into two parts: the anatomy of the tentorium cerebelli, the dura mater, and the ligaments and cervical muscles connected to the Tentorium; and the neurological anatomical information, which links the tentsorium to the central and peripheral nervous systems, venous brain drainage.


Anatomical variations in the main dural sheath are extremely rare, and this variation was associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum, representing a unique anatomical entity.

Delineation of Subarachnoid Cisterns Using CT Cisternography, CT Brain Positive and Negative Contrast, and a Three Dimensional MRI Sequence: A Pictorial Review

This pictorial essay reviews the radiological images where the subarachnoid cisterns are delineated in four unique circumstances.

The anatomical features of denticulate ligament in human fetuses

Detailed morphological data about fetal denticulate ligament presented in this study provide significant information which may be essential during several surgical interventions performed in early postnatal period and childhood focusing on the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and meningeal structures.

Volumetric and symmetry comparison of intracranial matter between preterm and full-term children

The ELGAN group had higher intracranial volumes and showed statistically significant asymmetry that was not present in the normal term population with a larger right brain than left brain.

The meninges: new therapeutic targets for multiple sclerosis.



The cranial dura mater: a review of its history, embryology, and anatomy

The cranial dura mater has a rich history, the embryology is complex, and the surgical anatomy of this layer and its specializations are important to the neurosurgeon.

The Cranial Arachnoid and Pia Mater in Man: Anatomical and Ultrastructural Observations

Results of the study showed that as the vertebral artery pierced the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and entered the subarachnoid space, it acquired a leptomeningeal coat as the arachnoids was reflected on to the surface of the cortex as the pia mater.

The cranial meninges: anatomic considerations.


The gross anatomy and embryology of the intradural filum terminale have been fully considered, but it is difficult to find accurate data on the normal histology. The importance of an understanding of


Modern metallic methods have been utilized in this study to demonstrate the cytologic structure of the filum and its transition to the conus medullaris.

An anatomic, myelographic and cinemyelographic study of the dentate ligaments.

  • B. Epstein
  • Medicine
    The American journal of roentgenology, radium therapy, and nuclear medicine
  • 1966
The anatomy of the dentate ligaments is described as seen in situ in the cadaver, after removal of the spinal cord at necropsy, and on myelographic and cinemyelographic investigations during life.

The intracranial denticulate ligament: anatomical study with neurosurgical significance.

Knowledge of the relationships of the first denticulate ligament may prove useful to the neurosurgeon during procedures at the craniocervical junction.

An anatomical study of the role of the detate ligaments in the cervical spinal canal.

Mechanical compression of the spinal cord in the cervical spinal canal was one of the main mechanisms responsible for the myelopa thy found in cervical spondylosis.

Lumbar intrathecal ligaments

It is suggested that the intrathecal ligaments represent remnants from fetal development of the denticulate ligaments that were found randomly binding the dorsal nerve roots of the cauda equina to the dura.

History of the spinal cord localization.

The 20th century ushered in a new era in the evaluation of spinal cord function and localization; however, the total understanding of this remarkable organ remains elusive.