The physiological consequences of crib-biting in horses in response to an ACTH challenge test

@article{Freymond2015ThePC,
  title={The physiological consequences of crib-biting in horses in response to an ACTH challenge test},
  author={Sabrina Briefer Freymond and D{\'e}borah Bardou and Elodie F. Briefer and Rupert M. Bruckmaier and Nadia Fouch{\'e} and Jean Fleury and Anne-Laure Maigrot and Amandine Ramseyer and Klaus Zuberb{\"u}hler and Iris Bachmann},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  year={2015},
  volume={151},
  pages={121-128}
}
Stereotypies are repetitive and relatively invariant patterns of behavior, which are observed in a wide range of species in captivity. Stereotypic behavior occurs when environmental demands produce a physiological response that, if sustained for an extended period, exceeds the natural physiological regulatory capacity of the organism, particularly in situations that include unpredictability and uncontrollability. One hypothesis is that stereotypic behavior functions to cope with stressful… 
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Effects of breed, management and personality on cortisol reactivity in sport horses
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No significant associations of cortisol responsiveness with personality traits were found, and neither the horses’ use as elite or as amateur sport horses nor the discipline had an effect on the cortisol response, suggesting that optimizing husbandry conditions may be more important for improving Horses’ welfare than changing their use.
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High level of chronic stress, expressed as abnormal and stereotypic behaviors, was observed in the horses.
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TLDR
This study corroborates the gene by environment interaction on the development of oral stereotypies in calves and confirms that calves with a zero solid feed allowance showed links between stereotypies and two of the PCs.
Repeatability of the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response in healthy horses.
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It is confirmed that the administration of ACTH in healthy horses reliably stimulates the salivary secretion of cortisol and shows that the test is repeatable in the short- and long-term.
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TLDR
Investigation of correlates of oral and motor stereotypic behaviours and glucocorticoid levels in two large samples of domestic horses found that cortisol measures do not indicate that stereotypic horses cope better, at least in terms of adrenocortical activity.
Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses
The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousalinducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent
Variation in stress reactivity affects cage-induced stereotypies in female CD-1 (ICR) mice
Stereotypies in captive animals typically occur under conditions that are stressful for the animals, and there is some anecdotal evidence that stress levels during early stereotypy development
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Crib-biting is a form of oral stereotypy affecting 4-5% of horses. Once fixed, crib-biting is difficult to eliminate by behaviour therapy, however, its performance can be inhibited by collar or
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TLDR
The heart rate and behaviour of 14 adult saddle horses, eight crib-biters and six normal controls, were investigated and it was found that the crib- Biters had a higher overall mean heart rate suggesting that they may haveHad a higher basal sympathetic activity.
Physiological and behavioral consequences associated with short-term prevention of crib-biting in horses
TLDR
There was no significant difference in the mean baseline levels of normal and crib-biting horses but, contrary to expectations, beta-endorphin levels were higher in crib- biting horses than in normal horses when crib-Biting was prevented, suggesting that the function of this oral stereotypy does not lie in stress-reduction.
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During the past decade, stereotypic behavior in horses, specifically crib-biting behavior, has received considerable attention in the scientific literature. Epidemiological and experimental studies
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TLDR
The decrease in both heart rate and thermal threshold during cribbing provide evidence that cribbing may reduce stress, and indicate differences in cribber's endogenous opioid and serotonergic systems.
How reliable is temperament assessment in the domestic horse (Equus caballus)
Abstract Differences in behavioural characteristics between individuals of the same species are often described as being due to the temperament of the individuals. These differences can have enormous
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