# The physics of gamma-ray bursts

@article{Piran2005ThePO,
title={The physics of gamma-ray bursts},
author={Tsvi Piran},
journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
year={2005},
volume={76},
pages={1143-1210}
}
• T. Piran
• Published 25 May 2004
• Physics
• Reviews of Modern Physics
Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's), short and intense pulses of low-energy $\ensuremath{\gamma}$ rays, have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in the late sixties. During the last decade, several space missions\char22{}BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, BeppoSAX and now HETE II (High-Energy Transient Explorer)\char22{}together with ground-based optical, infrared, and radio observatories have revolutionized our…
1,236 Citations
On the Gamma-Ray Bursts Origin
Gamma-ray (GRBs) and X-ray Bursts are millisecond-10 and 1000 seconds-long events of unknown origin. Recent simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems do not generate a magnetically
High-energy γ-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts — before GLAST
• Physics
• 2008
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft γ-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio
Gamma-ray bursts and their relation to astroparticle physics and cosmology
This article gives an overview of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their relation to astroparticle physics and cosmology. GRBs are the most powerful explosions in the universe that occur roughly once per
On the magnetization of gamma-ray burst blast waves
• Physics
• 2013
The origin of magnetic fields that permeate the blast waves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a long-standing problem. The present paper argues that in four GRBs revealing extended emission at > 100 MeV,
Gamma-ray bursts and collisionless shocks
Particle acceleration in collisionless shocks is believed to be responsible for the production of cosmic-rays over a wide range of energies, from a few GeV to >10 20 eV, as well as for the
Observation of inverse Compton emission from a long γ-ray burst
• Physics
Nature
• 2019
A multi-frequency observing campaign of the γ-ray burst GRB 190114C reveals a broadband double-peaked spectral energy distribution, and the teraelectronvolt emission could be attributed to inverse Compton scattering.
Afterglow observations of Fermi large area telescope Gamma-Ray Bursts and the emerging class of hyper-energetic events
• Physics
• 2010
We present broadband (radio, optical, and X-ray) light curves and spectra of the afterglows of four long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; GRBs 090323, 090328, 090902B, and 090926A) detected by the

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 706 REFERENCES
Gamma-Ray bursts: accumulating afterglow implications, progenitor clues, and prospects.
Advances in understanding how the GRB and afterglow radiation arises in terms of a relativistic fireball shock model have opened new vistas and questions on the nature of the central engine, the identity of their progenitors, the effects of the environment, and their possible gravitational wave, cosmic ray, and neutrino luminosity.
GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: 30 YEARS OF DISCOVERY
• Physics
• 2004
In the last thirty years, gamma-ray bursts have grown from an oddity to a central position in astrophysics. Not only are they the largest explosions since the big bang, capable of flooding most of
Yet Another Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts
Sari & Piran have demonstrated that the time structure of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) must reflect the time structure of their energy release. A model that satisfies this condition uses the
On the energy of gamma-ray bursts
• Physics
• 1999
We show that gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations strongly suggest, within the fireball model framework, that radiating electrons are shock accelerated to a power-law energy distribution,
The radio afterglow from the γ-ray burst of 8 May 1997
• Physics
Nature
• 1997
Important insight into the nature of γ-ray bursts (GRBs) has been gained in recent months mainly due to the immediate, precise localization of the bursts and the discovery of relatively long-lived
Hydrodynamics of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow
The detection of delayed emission at X-ray optical and radio wavelengths (afterglow) following gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggests that the relativistic shell that emitted the initial GRB as the result
BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Tails
With the discovery of low-energy radiation appearing to come from the site of gamma-ray bursts in the hours to weeks after the initial burst of gamma rays, it would appear that astronomers have seen
TWO POPULATIONS AND MODELS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
ABSTRACT /7: Gamma-ray burst statistics are best explained by a source population at cosmological distances, while spec-troscopy and intensity histories of some individual bursts imply an origin on