The physics of debris flows

  title={The physics of debris flows},
  author={Richard M. Iverson},
  journal={Reviews of Geophysics},
  pages={245 - 296}
  • R. Iverson
  • Published 1 August 1997
  • Geology
  • Reviews of Geophysics
Recent advances in theory and experimentation motivate a thorough reassessment of the physics of debris flows. Analyses of flows of dry, granular solids and solid‐fluid mixtures provide a foundation for a comprehensive debris flow theory, and experiments provide data that reveal the strengths and limitations of theoretical models. Both debris flow materials and dry granular materials can sustain shear stresses while remaining static; both can deform in a slow, tranquil mode characterized by… 
Study of pore fluid effect on the mobility of granular debris flows
Granular debris flows in nature are composed of a wide range of solids and viscous pore fluids, moving at high velocities down sloping channels. The pore fluids in a granular debris flow affect the
Flow resistance in the transition from dense to dilute granular-fluid flows
Substantial research work has been focusing on the flow resistance of dense granular-fluid geophysical flows, e.g., debris flows. However, the mechanism of flow resistance as the dense debris flows
Dimensional analysis of natural debris flows
Debris flow is generally composed of a wide range of solid particles and viscous pore fluid . I t flows at a high traveling velocity down a slope channel. Interactions between solid and fluid phases
Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three‐dimensional terrain: 1. Coulomb mixture theory
Rock avalanches, debris flows, and related phenomena consist of grain-fluid mixtures that move across three-dimensional terrain. In all these phenomena the same basic forces govern motion, but
Debris-flow deposition: Effects of pore-fluid pressure and friction concentrated at flow margins
Measurements of pore-fluid pressure and total bed-normal stress at the base of several ~10 m 3 experimental debris flows provide new insight into the process of debris-flow deposition. Pore-fluid
A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure
Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying
Depositional mechanisms and morphology of debris flow: physical modelling
A comprehensive understanding of the deposition mechanisms and morphology of debris flows is necessary to delineate the extent of a debris flow hazard. However, due to the wide range of debris flow
Process of Occurrence, Flow and Deposition of Viscous Debris Flow
Debris flow generally contains particles whose size distributes in a very wide range, and the fine fraction of them is usually incorporated in the interstitial water to behave as a kind of fluid.
Fluid-particle interaction in geophysical flows: debris flow
Small scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mor- phology and rheological behaviour of fluid-particle mixtures, such as snout-body architecture, levee formation, deposition


The physics of debris flows―a conceptual assessment
Debris flows exhibit conspicuous dynamic interactions among their solid and fluid constituents. Key features of the interactions are neglected in traditional theories that treat debris flows as
Dominant particle support mechanisms in debris flows at Mt Thomas, New Zealand, and implications for flow mobility
Within zones of little or no deformation by internal shearing in debris flows at Mt Thomas, about two-thirds of the weight of large particles is supported by buoyancy and about one-third by static
Hydraulic modeling of unsteady debris-flow surges with solid-fluid interactions
Interactions of solid and fluid constituents produce the unique style of motion that typifies debris flows. To simulate this motion, a new hydraulic model represents debris flows as deforming masses
The Mechanics of Rapid Granular Flows
Structural features in granular flows
High-speed motion pictures document a series of essentially two-dimensional, free-surface flows of 6-mm diameter plastic spheres generated in an inclined glass-walled chute 3.7 m long and 6.7 mm
Friction in Debris Flows: Inferences from Large-scale Flume Experiments
A recently constructed flume, 95 m long and 2 m wide, permits systematic experimentation with unsteady, nonuniform flows of poorly sorted geological debris. Preliminary experiments with
A granular material is a collection of a large number of discrete solid particles. Generally, the interstices between the particles are filled with a fluid such as air or water, and thus,
Granular-Fluid Chute Flow: Experimental and Numerical Observations
Equations of motion and boundary conditions for a flowing granular-fluid mixture, both based in the kinetic theory for granular flow, are here extended to allow for drag forces resulting from the
Debris Flow on Prismatic Open Channel
Reviews on the yield strength and viscosity of the interstitial clay slurry in debris flow prove that ordinary debris flow may be modeled as a dilatant fluid in which the intergranular forces
Grain flow as a fluid-mechanical phenomenon
  • P. Haff
  • Physics
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • 1983
The behaviour of granular material in motion is studied from a continuum point of view. Insofar as possible, individual grains are treated as the ‘molecules’ of a granular ‘fluid’. Besides the