The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization

  title={The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization},
  author={Charles G. Sibley and Jon E. Ahlquist},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
SummaryThe living hominoid primates are Man, the chimpanzees, the Gorilla, the Orangutan, and the gibbons. The cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) are the sister group of the hominoids. The composition of the Hominoidea is not in dispute, but a consensus has not yet been reached concerning the phylogenetic branching pattern and the dating of divergence nodes. We have compared the single-copy nuclear DNA sequences of the hominoid genera using DNA-DNA hybridization to produce a complete matrix of… 

DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: Results from an expanded data set

An expanded data set totaling 514 DNA hybrids supports the branching order given above for the phylogeny of the hominoids, and the possible effects of differences in age at first breeding are discussed.

DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: A reanalysis of the data

A reanalysis of the Sibley and Ahlquist data is presented, including a description of the corrections applied to the “raw counts”, to indicate that Pan is genetically closer to Homo than toGorilla, but that Gorilla may be genetically close toPan than toHomo.

Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids

The genetic distances among primate lineages estimated from orthologous noncoding nucleotide sequences of β-type globin loci and their flanking and intergenic DNA agree closely with the distances estimated by cross hybridization of total genomic single-copy DNAs.

Man's place in hominoidea revealed by mitochondrial DNA genealogy

SummaryMolecular biology has resurrected C. Darwin and T.H. Huxley's question about the origin of humans, but the precise branching pattern and dating remain controversial. To settle this issue, a

Man's place in Hominoidea as inferred from molecular clocks of DNA

The ratio of the dates of orangutan splitting to chimpanzee is larger for the mtDNA clock than that for the η-globin clock, suggesting the possibilities of mt-DNA introgression among the early hominids and the early African apes, and/or of mtDNA polymorphism within the common ancestral species of Orangutan and the African apes that obscures the date of the true species separation ofOrangutans.

Analysis of GC-rich repetitive nucleotide sequences in great apes

In the chimpanzee and gorilla, as in man, βSat sequences showed a 68-bp Sau3A periodicity and were preferentially organized in large clusters, whereas in the orangutan, they were organized in DNA fragments of 550 bp, which did not seem to be characterized by a tandem organization.

Improved dating of the human/chimpanzee separation in the mitochondrial DNA tree: Heterogeneity among amino acid sites

This analysis suggests that humans separated from chimpanzees some 4–5 Myr ago, and the variable-invariable model for site heterogeneity fits the amino acid sequence data encoded by the mitochondrial DNA from Hominoidea remarkably well.

Mitochondrial DNA evolution in primates: Transition rate has been extremely low in the lemur

It appears that the transition rate of mtDNA evolution in the lemur has been extremely low, only about 1/10 that in other primate lines, whereas the transversion rate does not differ significantly from that of other primates.

Phylogenetic relationships and rates of evolution in primates: Allozymic data from catarrhine and platyrrhine species

The hypothesis that rates of evolution at the level of protein electrophoretic variation are equal both among the groups, as well as within each group, could not be rejected.

Nucleotide sequence of the beta-globin genes in gorilla and macaque: The origin of nucleotide polymorphisms in human

Evidence is provided that polymorphisms may represent a significant component of differences between closely related species as well as in terms of genetic affinities between human populations, and a rooted parsimonious tree for the six other frameworks is constructed.



Evidence on human origins from haemoglobins of African apes

R rigorously determined α- and β-haemoglobin amino acid sequences not only of chimpanzee and Gorilla gorilla but also pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) are reported, which favour the explanation of decelerated evolution and point to selection preserving perfected haemoglobin molecules.

Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: Tempo and mode of evolution

Genealogical analysis of the sequence differences supports the view that the human lineage branched off only slightly before the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages diverged and strengthens the hypothesis that humans are more related to gorillas and chimpanzees than is the orangutan.

Evolutionary tree for apes and humans based on cleavage maps of mitochondrial DNA.

Although this study has given a magnified view of the genetic differences among humans and apes, the possibility of a three-way split among the lineages leading to humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees still deserves serious consideration.

A molecular time scale for human evolution.

  • A. WilsonV. Sarich
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1969
It is shown that concordance exists between the hemoglobin and albumin results and that both support the suggestion that the human lineage diverged from that leading to the African apes far more recently than is generally supposed.


DNA-DNA hy- bridization comparisons between the homologous nucleotide sequences of the single-copy DNAs of the Wrentit and other passerines indicate that Chamaea is most closely related to the babblers and the Old World warblers, and that the latter two groups are ecotypes of a single, varied, monophyletic assemblage.

Rapid evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA.

The rate of evolution of the mitochondrial genome appears to exceed that of the single-copy fraction of the nuclear genome by a factor of about 10 and is likely to be an extremely useful molecule to employ for high-resolution analysis of the evolutionary process.

The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy.

A comparative analysis of high-resolution chromosomes from orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and man suggests that 18 or 23 pairs of chromosomes of modern man are virtually identical to those of the authors' "common hominoid ancestor", with the remaining pairs slightly different.

Chromosomal evolution in Primates: Tentative phylogeny from Microcebus murinus (Prosimian) to man

The karyotypes of more than 60 species of Primates are studied and compared, with the use of almost all existing banding techniques, and a fairly precise genealogy of many Primates is proposed, giving the positions of the Catarrhines, the Platyrrhines, and the Prosimians is proposed.

Chromosomal evolution of the great apes and man.

  • B. Dutrillaux
  • Biology
    Journal of reproduction and fertility. Supplement
  • 1980
Reconstruction of the sequence of the chromosomal changes indicates that, after the isolation of the orang-utan, a common ancestral population existed for the other species.