The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda—a comparison of morphological and molecular data

@article{Lter1997ThePP,
  title={The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda—a comparison of morphological and molecular data},
  author={Carsten L{\"u}ter and Thomas Bartolomaeus},
  journal={Zoologica Scripta},
  year={1997},
  volume={26}
}
Analyses of rRNA and rDNA among Metazoa result in a hypothesis of a sistergroup relationship of Brachiopoda and certain spiralian taxa, whereas analyses of morphological data imply that Brachiopoda show affinities to Deuterostomia within the Radialia. Regarding Brachiopoda as a derived spiralian taxon must be followed by a reinterpretation of the evolution of distinct brachiopod morphological characters—like cleavage pattern, coelom or larva. The experimental insertion of a monophyletic taxon… 

Molecular paleobiological insights into the origin of the Brachiopoda

Congruence of the traditional molecular phylogenetic analysis, microRNAs, and morphological cladograms suggest that Brachiopoda is monophyletic with Phoronida as its likely sister group.

Molecular data indicate the protostome affinity of brachiopods.

Recent data of molecular origin are reviewed and it is concluded that they argue strongly in favor of the protostome (and lophotrochozoan) affinity of the brachiopods.

Molecular data indicate the protostome affinity of brachiopods.

Recent data of molecular origin are reviewed and it is concluded that they argue strongly in favor of the protostome (and lophotrochozoan) affinity of the brachiopods.

Animal phylogeny and the ancestry of bilaterians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences

Because chaetognaths and lophophorates, taxa traditionally allied with deuterostomes, occupy basal positions within their respective protostomian clades, deuterstomy most likely represents a suite of characters plesiomorphic for bilaterians.

Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept

These analyses show that the three lophophorate lineages are affiliated with trochozoan rather than deuterostome phyla, and all hypotheses claiming that they are more closely related to Deuterstomia than to Protostomia can be rejected by topology testing.

New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias

The phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of Lophophorata and a sister-group relationship between Ectoprocta and Phoronida, indicating that the support for Polyzoa, Brachiozoa and Kryptrochozoa gathered so far is likely an artifact caused by compositional bias.

Character investigation and homology, with a brief discussion on the phylogenetic relationships of Annelida and Polychaeta within Metazoa

In order to systematize the Metameria, Annelida and Polychaeta are placed at the base of the deuterostomes, and these worm-like organisms are ultimately the ancestors of the Enterocoela.

Old trees, new trees--is there any progress?

It is argued here that, although many problematic aspects exist, there are several phylogenetic relationships that are supported by the majority of analyses and may be regarded as something like a robust backbone, which makes it possible to develop a basic understanding of the evolution of genes, molecules and structures in metazoan animals.

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