The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda—a comparison of morphological and molecular data

  title={The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda—a comparison of morphological and molecular data},
  author={Carsten L{\"u}ter and Thomas Bartolomaeus},
  journal={Zoologica Scripta},
Analyses of rRNA and rDNA among Metazoa result in a hypothesis of a sistergroup relationship of Brachiopoda and certain spiralian taxa, whereas analyses of morphological data imply that Brachiopoda show affinities to Deuterostomia within the Radialia. Regarding Brachiopoda as a derived spiralian taxon must be followed by a reinterpretation of the evolution of distinct brachiopod morphological characters—like cleavage pattern, coelom or larva. The experimental insertion of a monophyletic taxon… 

Molecular paleobiological insights into the origin of the Brachiopoda

Congruence of the traditional molecular phylogenetic analysis, microRNAs, and morphological cladograms suggest that Brachiopoda is monophyletic with Phoronida as its likely sister group.

Molecular data indicate the protostome affinity of brachiopods.

Recent data of molecular origin are reviewed and it is concluded that they argue strongly in favor of the protostome (and lophotrochozoan) affinity of the brachiopods.

Molecular data indicate the protostome affinity of brachiopods.

Recent data of molecular origin are reviewed and it is concluded that they argue strongly in favor of the protostome (and lophotrochozoan) affinity of the brachiopods.

Animal phylogeny and the ancestry of bilaterians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences

Because chaetognaths and lophophorates, taxa traditionally allied with deuterostomes, occupy basal positions within their respective protostomian clades, deuterstomy most likely represents a suite of characters plesiomorphic for bilaterians.

Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept

These analyses show that the three lophophorate lineages are affiliated with trochozoan rather than deuterostome phyla, and all hypotheses claiming that they are more closely related to Deuterstomia than to Protostomia can be rejected by topology testing.

New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias

The phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of Lophophorata and a sister-group relationship between Ectoprocta and Phoronida, indicating that the support for Polyzoa, Brachiozoa and Kryptrochozoa gathered so far is likely an artifact caused by compositional bias.

Character investigation and homology, with a brief discussion on the phylogenetic relationships of Annelida and Polychaeta within Metazoa

In order to systematize the Metameria, Annelida and Polychaeta are placed at the base of the deuterostomes, and these worm-like organisms are ultimately the ancestors of the Enterocoela.

Old trees, new trees--is there any progress?

It is argued here that, although many problematic aspects exist, there are several phylogenetic relationships that are supported by the majority of analyses and may be regarded as something like a robust backbone, which makes it possible to develop a basic understanding of the evolution of genes, molecules and structures in metazoan animals.




  • S. Carlson
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 1995
A phylogenetic analysis of the monophyletic status of the Brachiopoda and phylogenetic relationships within the phylum found that arguments concerning single or multiple origins of a bivalved shell are not relevant to recognizing brachiopods as a clade.

Annelida and Arthropoda are Not Sister Taxa: A Phylogenetic Analysis of Spiralian Metazoan Morphology

This study presents a new analysis of 141 independently assembled characters, purported to represent the current state of knowledge of metazoan morphology and embryology, and results in robust support of the Eutrochozoa hypothesis.

A Supra-Ordinal Classification of the Brachiopoda

A new classification of the Brachiopoda is proposed to take into account recent advances in understanding of the anatomy, shell morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of the phylum, and is divided into three subphyla, each typified by Recent species with early Palaeozoic ancestors and defined by easily identifiable synapomorphies.

The monophyletic origin of the Brachiopoda

Cladistic analysis of both living forms and Lower Paleozoic taxa strongly supports the contention that brachiopods are monophytetic and closely related to the phoronids and suggests, however, that the ‘inarticulate’ Paterinida and Kutorginida are genealogically more closely related than they are to the remaining Inarticulata.

Taxonomic congruence versus total evidence, and amniote phylogeny inferred from fossils, molecules, and morphology.

It is concluded that a more highly resolved and robust phylogenetic hypothesis of amniotes, the traditional one, emerges when a total evidence approach is employed.

Larval Planktotrophy—A Primitive Trait in the Bilateria?

It is shown, in particular for the Mollusca, that a biphasic life-cycle with a lecithotrophic larva is probably the plesiomorphic condition, and theories which are based on the assumed plesiomorphy of larval planktotrophy of the Bilateria need careful reevaluation.

Convergence in the Feeding Apparatuses of Lophophorates and Pterobranch Hemichordates Revealed by 18S rDNA: An Interpretation.

The finding that a lophophore-like apparatus has evolved at least twice in metazoans even though the gross morphology, feeding mechanics, ultrastructure, and ciliary patterns of these organisms are very similar indicates that major clades of organisms can evolve in a correspondingfashion despite independent origins.

Phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa of Brachiopoda

Inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Brachiopoda have long been accepted as demonstrating repeated transitions from a phosphatic shell chemistry to a calcareous composition. This

Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined and suggest that the mesozoa is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far.