The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals

  title={The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals},
  author={John J. McCarthy},
An adequate theory of phonological distinctive features must meet four criteria: (i) it must have a relatively consistent and direct relation to the phonetic properties of speech sounds; (ii) it must be able to describe all and only the distinctions made by the sound systems of any of the world's languages; (iii) it must be able to characterize all and only the natural classes of sounds that recur in the phonological phenomena of different languages; and (iv) it must correctly characterize the… 
Pharyngealization Effects in Maltese Arabic
1. Introduction As is well known, the phonemic inventory of Classical Arabic and nearly all of the modern dialects includes a set of consonants conventionally referred to as the " emphatics. " The
Variable laryngeals and vowel lowering
The group of guttural consonants consists of those consonants articulated at the back of the vocal tract or with some constriction of the pharynx: uvulars, pharyngeals, laryngeals and emphatics, or
Phonological and Physiological Constraints on Assimilatory Pharyngealization in Arabic: Ultrasound Study
An essential characteristic of continuous speech is the great articulatory and acoustic variability of sounds, owing to the influence of surrounding segments. This segmental variability, referred to
An Emergent Approach to the Guttural Natural Class
The post-velar consonants (uvulars, pharyngeals/epiglottals, glottals) have been argued to form an innate and universal phonological natural class (e.g. by McCarthy 1994). Under this hypothesis,
Automatic Detection of Palatalized Consonants in Kashmiri
The acoustic-phonetic attributes of palatalization in the Kashmiri speech is investigated, and a promising result with a detection accuracy of 92.46 % is produced.
Arabic Phonology
The phenomenon seen in domains more than one is termed as Language Hybridization. Many languages have multiple dialects that tend to differ in the phonology concept. The Arabic language that is
Scalar and categorical phenomena in a unified model of phonetics and phonology
It is often assumed that there is a sharp division between phonetic and phonological processes, but the two are often strikingly similar, as in the case of phonetic consonant–vowel coarticulation and
Similarity and phonotactics in Arabic
The statistical patterns of language are systematic linguistic data which must be accounted for in linguistic theory. The phonotactics of the Arabic verbal roots are presented as a case study. In
Acoustic Discriminability of the Complex Phonation System in !Xóõ
Abstract Phonation types, or contrastive voice qualities, are minimally produced using complex movements of the vocal folds, but may additionally involve constriction in the supraglottal and
Patterns of Misperception of Arabic Consonants
There has been much investigation into perception of speech sounds, demonstrating a range of influences including listeners’ native language (e.g. Cutler et al. 2004), the sounds’ position in the


Papers in Laboratory Phonology: The role of the sonority cycle in core syllabification
Introduction One of the major concerns of laboratory phonology is that of determining the nature of the transition between discrete phonological structure (conventionally, “phonology”) and its
On pharynx—larynx interactions
The objective of this paper is to review the literature relevant to the relationship between these two articulators and to recast some of this information in terms of current articulator-based theories of phonological features such as the ones reviewed in McCarthy (1988).
Some Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of Pharyngeal Consonants in Iraqi Arabic
It was found that both /ħ/ and /?/ could be said to be produced by a constriction in the pharynx (whereby the possibility of epiglottal involvement cannot be excluded), but that laryngeal tension may also play an important role.
Prominence and Syllabication in Arabic
  • T. F. Mitchell
  • Linguistics
    Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
  • 1960
Faced with the fact that in many varieties of Arabic, including Bedouin dialects of the kind to which Sibawayhi was wont to turn, polysyllabic words and certain other unitary complexes are
Studies in Semitic Grammar III
TEIIS SUFFIX is usually considered to be a modification of the suffixed possessive particle -za, viz. nixa, the n being originally developed to avoid the hiatus between the vocalic endings of the
The geometry of phonological features
The apparently vast number of speech sounds found in the languages of the world turn out to be surface-level realisations of a limited number of combinations of a very small set of such features – some twenty or so, in current analyses.
When the method of comparative reconstruction is applied to modern Aramaic dialects, it affords a glimpse at a variety of Aramaic which existed between the latest classical Aramaic and the appearance
The epiglottis as an articulator
The evidence leads us to conclude that the epiglottis is an active and independent articulator in the production of pharyngeal consonants and that it is involved in theproduction of the vowel [a] and in whisper.
  • M. Yip
  • Linguistics, Physics
  • 1991
1. The question of the phonological nature of phonetically long segments was a concern to structuralists of both the American and Prague schools. Thus Hockett (1955: 76ff.), taking as his point of