The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens

@article{Corona2015ThePO,
  title={The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens},
  author={Giovanni Corona and Giulia Ratrelli and Mario Maggi},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy},
  year={2015},
  volume={16},
  pages={369 - 387}
}
Introduction: Adulthood male hypogonadism (HG) is the most common form of HG. Although testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) is the most common way of treating HG, other options are available depending on patient’s needs and expectations. Areas covered: We analyze alternative options to TRT as a medical intervention in treating HG. Gonadotropin (Gn) therapy is the treatment of choice in men with secondary HG (sHG), who require fertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy represents an… 
Treatment of Hypogonadism
TLDR
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the most studied therapy in this particular and controversial condition, and there is substantial consistence on the efficacy of TRT in improving sexual function, increasing lean mass, and decreasing fat mass.
Pharmacological management of late-onset hypogonadism
TLDR
The present data indicate that antiestrogens are able to increase testosterone levels without changing gonadotropins or even increasing them, and that TTh is able to improve sexual function and body composition, with more evident results obtained with transdermal and injectable preparations.
Different Medications for Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.
TLDR
Gonadotropins and GnRH, besides inducing secondary sexual characteristics, can also induce testicular maturation and spermatogenesis, and other molecules, such as kisspeptin and neurokinin B agonists, are now under evaluation as new therapeutic options for treating DP.
Kisspeptin levels in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism diagnosed male patients and its relation with glucose-insulin dynamic
TLDR
It is considered that kisspeptin is one of the reasons for hypogonatropichypogonadism and has less effect on insulin resistance and there may be a GPR54 resistance or GnRH neuronal transfer pathway defect.
Treatment of Functional Hypogonadism Besides Pharmacological Substitution
TLDR
Physicians should strongly adapt all the reasonable strategies to remove/mitigate the known conditions underlying functional hypogonadism, including MetS and obesity.
Paediatric and adult-onset male hypogonadism
TLDR
This Primer focuses on a reappraisal of the physiological role of testosterone, with emphasis on the critical interpretation of the hypog onadal conditions throughout the lifespan of the male individual, with the exception of hypogonadal states resulting from congenital disorders of sex development.
Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Sexual Symptoms.
Cardiovascular impact of testosterone therapy for hypogonadism
TLDR
It is documented that TTh was not associated with an increased CV mortality or morbidity either when overall or major adverse CV events were considered and available information on possible long-term effects of TTh on CV risk is limited.
Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk: A Review
TLDR
The data meta-analyzed here do not support any causal role between TRT and adverse CV events, and it is important to monitor hematocrit at regular intervals in T-treated subjects in order to avoid potentially serious adverse events.
CLOMIPHENE CITRATE IN THE TREATMENT OF IDIOPATHIC OR FUNCTIONAL HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM IN MEN: A CASE SERIES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
  • Y. Liel
  • Medicine
    Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • 2017
TLDR
It is suggested that clomiphene is an efficient and convenient alternative to testosterone replacement therapy in a substantial subset of patients with LOH and additional long-term controlled studies should further establish the role of clomidhene in LOH.
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