The pharmacology of psilocybin

  title={The pharmacology of psilocybin},
  author={Torsten Passie and Juergen Dr Seifert and Udo Schneider and Hinderk M. Emrich},
  journal={Addiction Biology},
Psilocybin (4‐phosphoryloxy‐N,N‐dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide.These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about… 
The Mushroom Psilocybin with Psychedelic Properties
Psilocybin, the active chemical in psilocybin mushrooms can also be considered a close chemical relative of DMT, for the psilocybin molecule contains a DMT molecule at the end
Psilocybin – Summary of knowledge and new perspectives
Metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin: clinical and forensic toxicological relevance
This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites, with clinical and forensic relevance in diagnosis.
Production Options for Psilocybin: Making of the Magic.
It is highlighted that the prospect of psilocybin as a promising therapeutic may entail an increased demand, which can be met by biotechnological production, and the concurrently developed concept of enzymatic in’vitro and heterologous in vivo production, along with previous synthetic routes.
Taking Different Roads: l-Tryptophan as the Origin of Psilocybe Natural Products.
The focus is laid on l-tryptophan and the various Psilocybe natural products and their metabolic routes are highlighted, and pharmacological, medicinal, ecological, biochemical, and evolutionary aspects are included.
Clinical potential of psilocybin as a treatment for mental health conditions.
An in-depth review of the study design and results of psilocybin use in each of the mental health disease states and symptoms and discusses the clinical potential for use is provided.
Fungal Hallucinogens Psilocin, Ibotenic Acid, and Muscimol: Analytical Methods and Biologic Activities
The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid.
The classical hallucinogens having an affinity towards 5HT2A receptors are discussed, along with their common behavioral effects, toxicity and psychiatric complications which could have long-term


Psilocybin und Psilocin, zwei psychotrope Wirkstoffe aus mexikanischen Rauschpilzen
The psychotropically active principles of the Mexican hallucinogenic fungus Psilocybe maxicana HEIM have been isolated and obtained in crystalline form and are present in the fruit bodies, the artificially cultivated mycelium and in the sclerotia.
Comparison of psilocin with psilocybin, mescaline and LSD-25
Reactions induced by LSD, mescaline, psilocin, and psilocybin are qualitatively similar andPsilocin is approximately 1.4 times as potent as p silocybin, the same as that of the molecular weights of the two drugs.
Mutagenicity testing of 3 hallucinogens: LSD, psilocybin and delta 9-THC, using the micronucleus test.
Using the micronucleus test as a screening method for mutagenic activity, no significant increase in the number of micronuclei was found when LSD, psilocybin or delta 9-THC were administered in 3
Comparison of the reactions induced by psilocybin and LSD-25 in man
  • H. Isbell
  • Biology, Psychology
  • 2004
After both drugs, abnormal mental states characterized by feelings of strangeness, difficulty in thinking, anxiety, altered sensory perception (particularly visual), elementary and true visual hallucinations, and alterations of body image were reported by the subjects.
Psilocybin induces schizophrenia‐like psychosis in humans via a serotonin‐2 agonist action
In healthy human volunteers, the psychotomimetic effects of psilocybin were blocked dose-dependently by the serotonin-2A antagonist ketanserin or the atypical antipsychotics risperidone, but were increased by the dopamine antagonist and typical antipsychotic haloperidol.
It is suggested that RT may provide a sensitive behavioral measure of relatively early central nervous system involvement in HIV-infected individuals and that QUIN may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related neurological dysfunction.
Advances and pathophysiological models of hallucinogenic drug actions in humans: a preamble to schizophrenia research.
The data demonstrate that the neuronal substrate of normal and abnormal thought and behavior is associated with a distributed neuronal network and with multiple interactive neurotransmitter systems, and support the view that the hallucinogen challenge paradigm constitutes a powerful tool for elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Psilocybin in der modernen Psychotherapie
The A. deals with the history of Psilocybin as an aid in modern psychotherapy. An overview is given on references concerning historical aspects, psychopharmacology, pharmacology and toxicology of
Psychopathological, neuroendocrine and autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), psilocybin and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers Results of an experimental double-blind placebo-controlled study
The view that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class taking an intermediate position between hallucinogens and stimulants is supported, and is in line with both users’ reports and results from previous experimental studies.