The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse

@article{Warner2015ThePA,
  title={The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse},
  author={M L Warner and Nellie C. Kaufman and Oliver Grundmann},
  journal={International Journal of Legal Medicine},
  year={2015},
  volume={130},
  pages={127-138}
}
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in… 
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TLDR
Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.
From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction
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TLDR
The first pharmacokinetic study in humans, which demonstrated linearity and was consistent with the oral two-compartment model with a terminal half-life of about 1 day, suggests there is a possibility for it to be developed medically as a pain killer or better opioid substitute in the future.
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TLDR
The potent opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine, the major constituent of this plant, and its analogues were found in in vitro and in vivo experiments and the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity were clarified, and 7-hydroxymitragynines, a minor constituent of M. speciosa, was found to exhibit potent antinociceptive activity in mice.
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The background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures are discussed.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M.Speciosa.
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TLDR
Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms.
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