The peopling of America: craniofacial shape variation on a continental scale and its interpretation from an interdisciplinary view.

  title={The peopling of America: craniofacial shape variation on a continental scale and its interpretation from an interdisciplinary view.},
  author={Rolando Gonz{\'a}lez-Jos{\'e} and Maria C{\'a}tira Bortolini and Fabr{\'i}cio Rodrigues Santos and Sandro L. Bonatto},
  journal={American journal of physical anthropology},
  volume={137 2},
Twenty-two years ago, Greenberg, Turner and Zegura (Curr. Anthropol. 27,477-495, 1986) suggested a multidisciplinary model for the human settlement of the New World. Since their synthesis, several studies based mainly on partial evidence such as skull morphology and molecular genetics have presented competing, apparently mutually exclusive, settlement hypotheses. These contradictory views are represented by the genetic-based Single Wave or Out of Beringia models and the cranial morphology-based… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Geographic patterns of Early Holocene New World dental morphological variation

Dental anthropology played a seminal role in early studies of the peopling of the New World, and was a foundation of the early three wave model proposed by Greenberg, Turner and Zegura. In recent

Cranial Morphology of Early South Americans: Implications for Understanding Human Dispersion into the New World

Early South American groups have been described as possessing a different cranial morphology from the one typically observed among recent Native American populations. This peculiar morphology has

Paleoamerican morphology in the context of European and East Asian late Pleistocene variation: implications for human dispersion into the New World.

The results show strong morphological affinities among the early series irrespective of geographical origin, which together with the matrix analyses results favor the scenario of a late morphological differentiation of modern humans.

Brief Communication: Ancient Remains and the First Peopling of the Americas: Reassessing the Hoyo

OBJECTIVE: A noticeably well-preserved 12.500 years-old skeleton from the Hoyo Negro cave, Yucat � an, Mwas recently reported, along with its archaeological, genetic and skeletal characteristics.

Ancient remains and the first peopling of the Americas: Reassessing the Hoyo Negro skull.

The results reinforce the idea that the original population that first occupied the New World carried high levels of within-group variation, which was suggested previously on a synthetic model for the settlement of the Americas.

Morphological variation among late holocene Mexicans: Implications for discussions about the human occupation of the Americas.

The results show that the Mexican series share morphological affinities with the East Asian series, but maintains high levels of between-group variation, similar to South America, which supports the suggestion that the high phenotypic variation seen the Americas is not a result of its size, as it can be found in more constricted areas, such as the Mexican territory.

Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: implications for origins and diversity in the Americas.

Results indicate that early Holocene males have variable postcranial morphologies, but all share the common trait of wide bodies, which provides support for a single, possibly high latitude location for the genetic isolation of ancestors of the human colonizers of the Americas.

Evolutionary population history of early Paleoamerican cranial morphology

A novel analytical framework is applied to three-dimensional geometric morphometric data to partition the effects of population divergence from geographically mediated gene flow to understand the ancestry of the early South Americans in the context of global human history.



Craniofacial morphology of the first Americans: Pattern and process in the peopling of the New World.

Results indicate that under the assumptions of migration/founder models, the data are consistent with Paleoindians having derived from an undifferentiated Asian population that was not ancestral to modern American Indians, and the process of New World colonization is more complex than previously assumed.

Late Pleistocene/Holocene craniofacial morphology in Mesoamerican Paleoindians: implications for the peopling of the New World.

New evidence is presented supporting a model in which morphologically generalized groups of non-Northeast Asian descent (the so-called Paleoamericans) entered the continent first, and then dispersed from North to South America through Central America, and raise new issues about the continent's settlement scenario.

Cranial morphology of early Americans from Lagoa Santa, Brazil: implications for the settlement of the New World.

  • W. NevesM. Hubbe
  • Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
A close morphological affinity between South-American Paleoindians and extant Australo-Melanesians groups is confirmed, supporting the hypothesis that two distinct biological populations could have colonized the New World in the Pleistocene/Holocene transition.

A new early Holocene human skeleton from Brazil: implications for the settlement of the New World.

Craniometric evidence for Palaeoamerican survival in Baja California

Evidence of amodern Amerindian group from the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico, showing clearer affinities with Palaeoamerican remains than with modern Amerindians is presented, suggesting temporal continuity of the PalaeOamerican morphological pattern to the present.

Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: A comparative craniofacial view

Although both the earlier and later arrivals in the New World show a mixture of traits characteristic of the northern edge of Old World occupation and the Chinese core of mainland Asia, the proportion of the latter is greater for the more recent entrants.

Craniometric variation and the settlement of the Americas: testing hypotheses by means of R-matrix and matrix correlation analyses.

Estimating craniometric variability among several Asian and Native American populations in order to test goodness of fit of the data to different models of ancient population entries and dispersions into the New World suggested the model involving high Amerindian heterogeneity and two different morphological patterns or components explains better the variation observed.

Towards a theory of modern human origins: geography, demography, and diversity in recent human evolution.

It is argued that the Neanderthal and modern lineages share a common ancestor in an African population between 350,000 and 250,000 years ago rather than in the earlier Middle Pleistocene; this ancestral population, which developed mode 3 technology (Levallois/Middle Stone Age), dispersed across Africa and western Eurasia in a warmer period prior to independent evolution towards Neanderthals and modern humans in stage 6.

Variation among early North American crania.

  • R. JantzD. Owsley
  • Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2001
The results are inconsistent with hypotheses of an ancestor-descendent relationship between early and late Holocene American populations, and suggest that the pattern of cranial variation is of recent origin, at least in the Plains region.