Little is known about the qualifications and motives of pediatricians who provide expert witness testimony. Pediatricians in Pennsylvania were surveyed anonymously to learn more about this practice. Two hundred fifty-five (49%) of 520 pediatricians responded, and 126 of these physicians had provided expert testimony at some time. Fully affiliated medical school faculty members were more likely to act as expert witnesses than were other pediatricians. Seventy-seven (61%) did so to defend a fellow physician. Only eight (6%) were listed with an organization that provides expert witnesses. Pediatricians were selective about their involvement as expert witnesses, and 96 (76%) had refused to give testimony at some time. Most were paid an hourly rate, which was in keeping with charges for medical consultation or lecturing. More than 80% of respondents were unhappy with the present system of procuring expert witnesses.