The pathogenesis of esophageal dysfunction in scleroderma and Raynaud's disease.

To determine the pathogenesis of esophageal dysfunction in scleroderma and Raynaud's disease, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was tested with: (a) methacholine acting directly at the cholinergic receptor on the muscle; (b) edrophonium, a cholinesterase inhibitor, enhancing the effect of released acetylcholine; and (c) gastrin I, acting through the… CONTINUE READING