The pathogenesis of Leishmania/HIV co-infection: cellular and immunological mechanisms

  title={The pathogenesis of Leishmania/HIV co-infection: cellular and immunological mechanisms},
  author={Martin Olivier and Roberto Badar{\'o} and Francisco J. Medrano and Javier Moreno},
  journal={Annals of Tropical Medicine \& Parasitology},
  pages={79 - 98}
Abstract The intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed individuals, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Leishmaniasis and AIDS overlap in several sub-tropical and tropical regions around the world, including the Mediterranean area. In 1994, 3%-7% of HIV-1-infected individuals in southern Europe developed visceral leishmaniasis. In humans, interestingly, both HIV-1 and… 

The immunology of Leishmania/HIV co-infection

An overview of the immunopathogenesis of Leishmaniases/HIV co-infection and the implications of this interaction on Leishmania and HIV disease outcome is presented.

Intracellular survival of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis is significantly reduced by HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

It is reported that, although selected PIs do not inhibit the growth of Leishmania infantum promastigotes alone in culture, these drugs significantly inhibit the intracellular survival of parasites in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 macrophage and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and MDMs.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Leishmaniasis

The immune response to Leishmania in the setting of HIV co-infection is reviewed, with a focus on VL, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in East Africa, Brazil and the Indian subcontinent.

Leishmania/HIV co-infections in the second decade.

In this review several aspects of the Leishmania/HIV co-infection are emphasized viz., epidemiological features, new ways of transmission, pathogenesis, clinical outcome, diagnosis, treatment and secondary prohylaxis.

HIV/AIDS-associated visceral leishmaniasis in patients from an endemic area in Central-west Brazil.

Evaluating the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of VL-HIV-1/AIDS cases from Central-west [Mato Grosso do Sul (MS] Brazil found that IVDU may constitute an important risk factor for the transmission of both diseases in MS.

Leishmania infantum promastigotes reduce entry of HIV-1 into macrophages through a lipophosphoglycan-mediated disruption of lipid rafts.

It is reported here that Leishmania infantum promastigotes enhance HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) at late time points in the virus growth curve but also that, surprisingly, a reduction in HIV- 1 production is seen during the initial days after infection.

Epidemiological profile and lethality of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in an endemic area in Northeast Brazil

The profile and areas with most cases of co-infection in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil from 2014 to 2018 were defined and it was found that the lethality of VL with co- Infection increased in the current period.

Metagenomic Analysis Identifying a Rare Leishmania Infection in an Adult With AIDS

This case could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of leishmaniasis, and for determining disease progression, prevention, and control of vectors and reservoir hosts.



Role of mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

This review presents evidence that a litany of events in which macrophages participate in HIV-infection in humans parallels similar observations in such animal lentivirus infections as visna-maedi or caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses.

Activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in monocytoid cells by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani

Results from these studies indicate that the protozoan parasite L. donovani can induce the secretion of TNF-alpha that will function in an autocrine or paracrine manner to upregulate HIV-1 expression.

Immunology of leishmaniasis.

Immunological findings in HIV-Leishmania coinfection.

The results of this study show that the viral load is increased in patients with HIV-Leishmania coinfection in comparison to the controls, and this might be partly due to Th2 immune activation, as demonstrated by higher plasma levels of IL-4, -6 and -10 in HIV- Leishmania-coinfected patients than in HIV -infected individuals.

Visceral leishmaniosis in HIV‐positive patients: primary infection, reactivation and latent infection. Impact of the CD4+ T‐lymphocyte counts

The data suggest that in a latent Leishmania infection supplementary control mechanism(s) might operate in addition to the T-cell-mediated response, and provide a further example of non-appearance of an opportunistic infection despite a severe reduction in CD4+ T cells.

Visceral leishmaniasis in HIV‐1 -infected individuals: a common opportunistic infection in Spain?

Leishmaniasis is a relatively common infection in HIV-1-infected individuals in southern Spain and it can be the first opportunistic infection in individuals with HIV-2 and in endemic areas a high index of clinical suspicion should be maintained in order to avoid underdiagnosis of leish maniasis.

Role of Lymphoid Organs in the Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms operative in the lymphoid tissues of HIV-infected individuals will have important implications in the design of therapeutic strategies involving both antiretroviral and immunomodulatory approaches.

Chemotherapy and immunity in opportunistic parasitic infections in AIDS

The management of opportunistic parasitic infections in patients infected with HIV is dogged by failures and relapses, aptly illustrating the notion of the relationship between chemotherapy and the immune response.

Leishmania/HIV co-infections: epidemiology in Europe

The systematic use of standardized and recently computerized case-report forms, a central international registry at the WHO's headquarters in Geneva, and the use of a geographical information system (GIS) for mapping and monitoring the co-infections have together improved the overall quality of the epidemiological data-gathering.