The patents-based pharmaceutical development process: rationale, problems, and potential reforms.

  title={The patents-based pharmaceutical development process: rationale, problems, and potential reforms.},
  author={John H. Barton and Ezekiel J. Emanuel},
  volume={294 16},
The pharmaceutical industry is facing substantial criticism from many directions, including financial barriers to access to drugs in both developed and developing countries, high profits, spending on advertising and marketing, and other issues. Underlying these criticisms are fundamental questions about the value of the current patent-based drug development system. Six major problems with the patent system are (1) recovery of research costs by patent monopoly reduces access to drugs; (2) market… 

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