The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans.

@article{Holland2006TheOO,
  title={The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans.},
  author={Heinrich Dick Holland},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={2006},
  volume={361 1470},
  pages={
          903-15
        }
}
The last 3.85 Gyr of Earth history have been divided into five stages. During stage 1 (3.85-2.45 Gyr ago (Ga)) the atmosphere was largely or entirely anoxic, as were the oceans, with the possible exception of oxygen oases in the shallow oceans. During stage 2 (2.45-1.85 Ga) atmospheric oxygen levels rose to values estimated to have been between 0.02 and 0.04 atm. The shallow oceans became mildly oxygenated, while the deep oceans continued anoxic. Stage 3 (1.85-0.85 Ga) was apparently rather… CONTINUE READING

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