The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends supplying oxygen in developing countries by concentrators because cylinders pose considerable logistic and financial problems. This technology was employed to treat children in a hospital in Ndioum, Senegal, who met the WHO oxygenation criteria. There were clear clinical and financial benefits, but neither the nurses' knowledge of the various techniques of oxygen supply nor the maintenance service were satisfactory. The use of concentrators should be encouraged in developing countries. A strategy including technical training, maintenance and monitoring should be adopted. Corrective actions were undertaken in Ndioum, and several concentrators are now being used on a regular basis.