The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

@article{Giatti2016TheOS,
  title={The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.},
  author={Silvia Giatti and Roberto Cosimo Melcangi and Marzia Pesaresi},
  journal={Journal of molecular endocrinology},
  year={2016},
  volume={57 2},
  pages={
          R109-26
        }
}
Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone… 

Figures from this paper

Not All Progestins are Created Equally: Considering Unique Progestins Individually in Psychobehavioral Research
TLDR
It is argued that accounting for unique aspects of progestins is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the influence of HCs on women and a better understanding of these differences may clarify previous research and inform future studies.
Norethisterone and its acetate – what’s so special about them?
TLDR
Norethisterone (NET) is a potent progestogen, especially when considering the endometrium, making it a good choice for treating abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia.
Hormonal Contraception and Depression: Updated Evidence and Implications in Clinical Practice
TLDR
An update of the literature on the possible appearance of depressive symptoms when using hormonal contraceptives is provided, and the possible explanations of this problem are investigated based on animal and human studies.
Effects of selected oral contraceptives on the kidney functionality
TLDR
The findings of this study suggest that both contraceptives of study may pose the tendency of kidney toxicity when abused, with greater tendency in the groups administered Combination-3.
Effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep - A possible treatment for insomnia in premenopausal women
TLDR
It is hypothesizes that the use of hormonal contraceptives, mainly those based on progestagens could be a new therapeutic element for the treatment of insomnia and one more tool to be used to improve women´s sleep pattern and quality of life.
Progress in progestin-based therapies for neurological disorders
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Impairs Amyloid Beta Degradation in a Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Dependent Manner
TLDR
The results suggest MPA suppresses amyloid-beta degradation in an MMP-9-dependent manner, in vitro, and potentially compromises the clearance of amyloids beta-degrading activity in vivo.
Etonogestrel Administration Reduces the Expression of PHOX2B and Its Target Genes in the Solitary Tract Nucleus
TLDR
The results show that ETO reduced metabolic activity, leading to an enhanced chemoreflex response and concurrent increased breathing cycle variability at rest, and it is proposed that the NTS, rich in both progesterone receptors and PHOX2B, is a good candidate for ETO-induced respiratory modulation.
Neurodevelopmental disorders in children exposed in utero to synthetic progestins: analysis from the national cohort of the Hhorages Association*
TLDR
This work shows a striking increase in psychiatric disorders among children exposed in utero to progestins and strongly suggests that prenatal exposure is associated with a high risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and adulthood, whether accompanied or not by disorders of sex development.
The Effects of Ethynodiol Diacetate on Epinephrine-Treated Glial-Derived Cells
TLDR
The results of this study suggest that under these treatment parameters, ethynodiol diacetate does not protect glial-derived cultures from oxidative stress and shows that short-term epinephrine treatment improves cell viability in the human glioma-derived cell line used in this study.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 301 REFERENCES
Progestogens used in postmenopausal hormone therapy: differences in their pharmacological properties, intracellular actions, and clinical effects.
TLDR
Differences in chemical structure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, affinity, potency, and efficacy via steroid receptors, intracellular action, and biological and clinical effects confirm the absence of a class effect of progestogens.
Progestogens in hormonal replacement therapy: new molecules, risks, and benefits
TLDR
Complying with the classic contraindications of HRT and selecting molecules devoid of estrogenic, androgenic, or glucocorticoid effect should allow a larger use of the progestins without any major drawback.
Progestins and neuroprotection: are all progestins created equal?
  • M. Singh
  • Biology, Medicine
    Minerva endocrinologica
  • 2007
TLDR
Evidence is provided that, at least with respect to the brain, not all progestins are created equal, and there may be important caveats to these protective effects of estradiol and progesterone.
The Effects of Ethinylestradiol and Progestins (“the pill”) on Cognitive Function in Pre-menopausal Women
TLDR
The current review focused on the effects of OCs on human cognition, with the majority of studies comparing pre-menopausal OC users to naturally cycling women, and found that OC users appear to have improved verbal memory, associative learning and spatial attention.
Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration
  • H. Kuhl
  • Medicine, Biology
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2005
This review comprises the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens used in contraception and therapy, with special consideration of hormone
Pharmacological profile of progestins.
...
...