The origins of insect metamorphosis

  title={The origins of insect metamorphosis},
  author={James W. Truman and Lynn M Riddiford},
Insect metamorphosis is a fascinating and highly successful biological adaptation, but there is much uncertainty as to how it evolved. Ancestral insect species did not undergo metamorphosis and there are still some existing species that lack metamorphosis or undergo only partial metamorphosis. Based on endocrine studies and morphological comparisons of the development of insect species with and without metamorphosis, a novel hypothesis for the evolution of metamorphosis is proposed. Changes in… 

Complete metamorphosis of insects

It is proposed that the main adaptive benefit of complete metamorphosis is decoupling between growth and differentiation, which facilitates the exploitation of ephemeral resources and enhances the probability of the metamorphic transition escaping developmental size thresholds.

The Evolution of Insect Metamorphosis

Endocrine insights into the evolution of metamorphosis in insects.

This review explores the roles of ecdysone and juvenile hormone (JH) in the evolution of complete metamorphosis and how metamorphosis, in turn, has impacted endocrine signaling. JH is a key player in

Imperfect eggs and oviform nymphs: a history of ideas about the origins of insect metamorphosis.

The problem of insect metamorphosis has inspired naturalists for centuries. One question that often arises is why some insects, such as butterflies and bees, undergo a fairly radical metamorphosis

The evolution of insect metamorphosis: a developmental and endocrine view

The larva–pupa–adult of the Holometabola to the pronymph–nymph– adult of hemimetabolous insects, a cryptic embryonic stage with unique endocrinology and behavioural modifications that probably served as preadaptations for the larva.

Molecular mechanisms underlying metamorphosis in the most-ancestral winged insect

In dragonflies, it is shown that transcription factors Kr-h1 and E93 are essential for regulating metamorphosis as in other insects, while broad, the master gene for pupation in holometabolous insects, regulates a number of both nymph-specific genes and adult- specific genes, providing insight into what evolutionary trajectory the key transcription factor broad has experienced before ending up with governing pupation and holometaboly.

Origin and Evolution of Insect Metamorphosis

Holometabolan metamorphosis probably evolved from hemimetabolan ancestors, although the mechanisms underlying such a transition are still obscure.

Transcription factor E93 specifies adult metamorphosis in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects

It is reported that a single factor, E93, controls juvenile-to-adult transition in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, thus acting as the universal adult specifier in winged insects.

The innovation of the final moult and the origin of insect metamorphosis

  • X. Belles
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
  • 2019
It is proposed that the final moult, and the consequent hemimetabolan metamorphosis, is a monophyletic innovation and that the role of E93 as a promoter of wing formation and the degeneration of the PG was mechanistically crucial for their emergence.



Metamorphosis : postembryonic reprogramming of gene expression in amphibian and insect cells

This book discusses endocrine Cascade in Insect Metamorphosis, Hormone-Induced Changes in Keratin Gene Expression During Amphibian Skin Metamorphoses, and Reprogramming of Genes Expressed in Amphibians Liver During Metamorphotic.

Imaginal Discs in Insects

As the authors ascend the scale of development from the less highly to the more highly specialized insects having complete metamorphosis, they find a constantly increasing sum of differences between the larval and the imaginal forms, and a correspondingly increasing number of organs which are possessed by the imago and not by the larva.

Origin and evolution of insect wings and their relation to metamorphosis, as documented by the fossil record

All primitive Paleozoic pterygote nymphs are now known to have had articulated, freely movable wings reinforced by tubular veins, which suggests that the wings of early Pterygota were engaged in flapping movements, and that the immobilized, fixed, veinless wing pads of Recentnymphs have resulted from a later adaptation affecting only juveniles.

The effects of juvenile hormone analogues on the embryonic development of silkworms.

These findings provide the first indication that embryonic development is subject to inhibition by the very same hormonally active materials which are effective in blocking the metamorphosis of postembryonic insects.

Ecdysteroids govern two phases of eye development during metamorphosis of the moth, Manduca sexta.

The eye primordium of the moth, Manduca sexta, shows two different developmental responses to ecdysteroids depending on the concentration to which it is exposed, suggesting that ecdySTERoids control development of other tissues in a manner similar to the eye.

Life History and Habits of Sialis rotunda and S. californica in Western Oregon

Comparative ecological studies of Sialis rotunda Banks and S. californica Banks were made in western Oregon from 1966 to 1968 and it was found by rearing individual larvae that there are 10 larval instars, and measurements were recorded of body length and head width of all stadia.

Evolution and Classification of Beetles

The beetle ovipositor represents the plesiomorphic form of that found in neuropteroids, so Coleoptera could not be the sister group of any particular neuropteroid order; but Hamilton (48) argued on the basis of wing venation thatColeoptera and Megaloptera are sister groups.

Juvenile hormone titers in the hemolymph during late larval development of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.).

The determination of JH titers in heniolymph during the fourth and fifth instars of wild-type Manduca larvae, by means of a sensitive and quantitative JH bioassay utilizing larvae of the black mutant, is described.