The origins of empathic concern

  title={The origins of empathic concern},
  author={Carolyn Zahn-Waxler and Marian Radke-yarrow},
  journal={Motivation and Emotion},
Recent developments in research cast doubt on early conceptions of young children as primarily egocentric and uncaring of others' needs. Studies reviewed indicate a broad range of social competencies children bring to their interpersonal relationships. As early as 2 years of age, they show (a) the cognitive capacity to interpret, in simple ways, the physical and psychological states of others, (b) the emotional capacity to experience, affectively, the state of others, and (c) the behavioral… 
Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child temperament in early development of conscience.
It is argued that, while research on conscience development has emphasized the contribution of parental socialization, the influence of children's temperament has been largely neglected. Two
The Role of Parents in the Socialization of Children: An Historical Overview.
The history of research on childhood socialization in the context of th e family is traced through the present century. The 2 major early theories—behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory—are described.
Psychodynamics and Development
Empathy is nurtured in a facilitative early rearing environment, particularly in relation to the quality of child’s relationship with the mother or a primary caregiver. Evidence regarding the
The role of social understanding and empathic disposition in young children's responsiveness to distress in parents and peers.
Results reveal associations between empathic responsiveness to distressed mother and crying infant peer, suggesting that individual differences in prosocial motivation may exist right from the outset, when the ability to generate an empathic, prosocial response first emerges.
Patterns of development in early empathic behavior: Environmental and child constitutional influences
The second year of life is a period of developmental change and instability in empathic expressions. In this study, we identify specific developmental patterns of global empathy during the second
Families and Emotions
As attention to the emotional dimensions of social structure, culture, and individual development has grown, scholars have renewed their interest in the emotional lives of family members. The current
The Individual Child: Temperament, Emotion, Self, and Personality
This chapter is concerned with the unique qualities that develop to distinguish the individual child from others, the qualities that contribute to the growth of personality. The goal is to understand
Understanding Values in Relationship : The Development of Conscience
Conscience consists of the cognitive, affective, relational, and other processes that influence how young children construct and act consistently with generalizable, internal standards of conduct.
Toddlers' prosocial behavior: from instrumental to empathic to altruistic helping.
Findings suggest that over the 2nd year of life, prosocial behavior develops from relying on action understanding and explicit communications to understanding others' emotions from subtle cues.
Children's conscience during toddler and preschool years, moral self, and a competent, adaptive developmental trajectory.
The roles of classic components of morality--moral conduct, affect, and self--as antecedents of an adaptive developmental trajectory from toddler to early school age are elucidated.


Child rearing and children's prosocial initiations toward victims of distress.
Maternal rearing behavior was examined in relation to children's reparation for transgressions and altruism as bystanders to distress in others and affectively delivered explanations regarding the distresses their children had caused to others were associated withChildren's reparations for transgression.
The historical roots of contemporary empathy research.
  • G. Gladstein
  • Psychology
    Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences
  • 1984
This analysis documents the bases for empathy being viewed as projection, identification, emotional contagion, or role taking and suggests that current researchers should plan studies that tap more of the total psychological empathic experience.
Developmental changes in children's reactions to anger in the home.
Children's responses to anger appeared to be mediated by individual differences in emotionality, which evidenced continuity across settings and between age periods, but there was evidence that experience could modify reaction patterns to anger.
Dimensions and correlates of prosocial behavior in young children.
YARROW, MARIAN RADKE, and WAXLER, CAROLYN ZAHN, with the collaboration of BARRETT, DAVID; DARBY, JEAN; KING, ROBERT; PICKETT, MARILYN; and SMITH, JUDITH. Dimensions and Correlates of Prosocial
Developmental origins of moral masochism: a failure-to-thrive toddler's interactions with mother.
Level of Social-Cognitive Development, Adaptive Functioning, and DSM-III Diagnoses in Adolescent Offspring of Parents With Affective Disorders: Implications of the Development of the Capacity for Mutuality
This study examines the relation between the developmental social-cognitive capacity for interpersonal negotiation and both parental-risk and adolescent-outcome variables in 172 adolescents 11 to 19
Establishing New Social Relations in Infancy
This chapter will explore a relatively neglected topic in child development, the process whereby infants establish new social relations. It is important to state at the outset that new relations need
Sympathy and personal distress: development, gender differences, and interrelations of indexes.
The preliminary data can be viewed as indicating that a multimethod approach to studying empathy is useful for increasing the understanding of empathy, sympathy, and personal distress reactions and their development.