The origin of the true chariot

  title={The origin of the true chariot},
  author={Mary Aiken Littauer and J. H. Crouwel},
  pages={934 - 939}
New dates and new finds give cause to look again at that central issue in later European prehistory — the origin of wheeled light vehicles of battle. 

The earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe and the Near East

The earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles dates to the Funnel Beaker (TRB) culture in Europe and the Late Uruk period in the Near East. Results of excavations and 14C determinations from Poland,

Chariots in the Eurasian Steppe: a Bayesian approach to the emergence of horse-drawn transport in the early second millennium BC

Abstract In Eastern Europe, the use of light vehicles with spoked wheels and harnessed horse teams is first evidenced in the early second-millennium BC Sintashta-Petrovka Culture in the South-eastern

The Emergence of Chariots and Riding in the South Caucasus

Summary.  The beginning of the Late Bronze Age, i.e. the late fifteenth–early fourteenth centuries BC, saw the emergence of chariots in Transcaucasia, where rich barrows of this period yielded bronze

Horses, ancient Near East and Pharaonic Egypt

The wild horse, equus caballus, was foreign to the lowland Near East. Keywords: military history; travel; war

Domestication and early history of the horse

In spite of intensive investigations over many years, researchers know very little about theorigins of horse domestication and the evolution of horse husbandry.

A Third-Millennium B.C. Elite Tomb and Other New Evidence from Tell Umm el-Marra, Syria

The 1999-2000 excavations by the Dutch-American team at Tell Umm el-Marra, western Syria, achieved significant new results on the history and character of Bronze Age and later occupation at the site.

Ancient China and its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History

Introduction Part I: 1. The Steppe Highway: the rise of pastoral nomadism as a Eurasian phenomenon 2. Bronze, iron and gold: the evolution of nomadic cultures on the northern frontier of China Part

Eurasian Steppe Chariots and Social Complexity During the Bronze Age

This paper aims to examine some societal principles that underlie the development of horse-drawn chariots in Inner Eurasia during the Middle and Late Bronze Age (cal. 2050–1750 BC). Analysis is based

The myth of the journey of the soul and Bronze Age funerary sites of the Sintashta and Petrovka type in the Southern Trans-Urals

The article presents an attempt to interpret the semantics of one of the brightest examples of the burial rite among the pastoral population with high level of metal production, which left the sites

Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

  • M. Levine
  • History
    Equine veterinary journal. Supplement
  • 1999
Evidence suggests that the observed increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits during the Copper Age could be explained by increased hunting rather than by domestication.



The emergence of the light, horse‐drawn chariot in the Near‐East c. 2000–1500 B.C.

Abstract Three recent major studies of horse‐drawn vehicles in Europe and the Near East provide the background for this review of the evidence for light early military chariots in Western Asia.

Horse, wagon & chariot: Indo-European languages and archaeology

New discoveries across the steppe zone of eastern Europe, and new dates relating to those discoveries, keep that oldest of archaeological puzzles, the Indo-European question, happily unanswered. A

The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East

When did the Indo-Europeans enter the lands that they occupied during historical times? And, more specifically, when did the Greeks come to Greece? Robert Drews brings together the

Birth of the chariot

Les fouilles des sites de Sintashta et Krivoe Orezo situes pres de Magnitogorsk a l'Est de la chaine de l'Oural, ont permis de mettre au jour des sepultures contenant des chars datant de la fin du 3e

Pictorial Evidence for the History of Horse-Riding in Iraq before the Kassite Period

The problems involved in any attempt to elucidate the earliest history of the domesticated horse in the Near East are notorious; an enormous literature already bears witness as much to the popularity

Chariots and related equipment from the tomb of Tut'ankhamūn

The six, actual, full-sized chariots of Tutankhamun are of singular importance, not only to the history of chariotry in general, but to the understanding of Late Bronze-Age warfare, and to an

Hausesel contra Hausonager" Eine kritische Bemerkung zu einer Untersuchung von J. Bollweg und W. Nagel über die Equiden Vorderasiens

Repondant a une etude sur les equides en Mesopotamie aux quatrieme et troisieme millenaires qui affirme la presence de mulets domestiques a cote des ânes, aussi bien dans les textes akkadiens que