The origin of photic behavior and the evolution of sexual communication in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

@article{Branham2003TheOO,
  title={The origin of photic behavior and the evolution of sexual communication in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)},
  author={Marc A Branham and John W Wenzel},
  journal={Cladistics},
  year={2003},
  volume={19}
}
Through a phylogenetic analysis using adult morphological characters, we show that the origin of bioluminescence in cantharoid beetles appears to predate the origin of the family Lampyridae. The ability to produce and emit photic signals was first gained by larvae and appears to function as an aposematic warning display; it was subsequently gained in adults and is used as a sexual signal. Our analysis also suggests that while pheromonal sexual signals are used basally in the family, they are… 
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TLDR
The first cytogenetic analysis of fireflies from Brazilian fauna was carried out in this work, and the analysis of meiotic cells showed that the neoXY sexual bivalent of B. lividipennis exhibited a prominent terminal chiasma, indicating that the sex chromosomes are not wholly differentiated and still retain a region of homology.
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The evolutionary trait analysis revealed significant correlations between increased female neoteny and male accessory gland number, as well as between flightlessness and spermatophore loss, providing new insights into sexual selection and life‐history evolution.
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