The origin of extracellular DNA during the clearance of dead and dying cells

  title={The origin of extracellular DNA during the clearance of dead and dying cells},
  author={David S Pisetsky and Anna-Marie Fairhurst},
  pages={281 - 284}
DNA is a nuclear molecule that has both an intracellular and extracellular role. Inside the cell, it is the essential molecule of heredity while outside the cell it can have immunological activity, both alone and in the context of immune complexes. Furthermore, extracellular DNA has information content that can be mined by genomic techniques. Because of the association of extracellular DNA with clinical conditions marked by cell death, dead and dying cells have been considered the origin of… 
The paper represents a synopsis of current publications concerning existence of free extracellular DNA, and it was shown that free DNA may exert stimulatory or suppressive effects upon functions of immunocompetent cells.
Molecules Involved in Recognition and Clearance of Apoptotic/Necrotic Cellsand Cell Debris
The mechanism of engulfment of dying cells and the signalling pathways leading to phagocytosis are described and extracellular mechanisms seem to exist that are activated for the disposal of necrotic cells and their remnants.
Extracellular DNA traps in inflammation, injury and healing
How DNA traps not only participate in pathogen clearance but can also promote vascular disease and autoimmunity is discussed.
Priming of human neutrophils is necessary for their activation by extracellular DNA
Experiments clearly indicate that GM-CSFinduced priming of human neutrophils is necessary for their subsequent activation by extracellular DNA.
[Generation of blood circulating DNA: the sources, peculiarities of circulation and structure].
: Extracellular nucleic acids (exNA) were described in blood of both healthy and illness people as early as in 1948, but staied overlooked until middle 60th. Starting from the beginning of new
Generation of blood circulating DNAs: Sources, features of struction and circulation
This review summarizes literature data which support all the theories describing appearance of cirDNA; certain attention is paid to features of circulation and structure of the cirDNA and factors affecting time of DNA circulation in blood.
Induction of cytokine production in cholesteatoma keratinocytes by extracellular high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 combined with DNA released by apoptotic cholesteatoma keratinocytes
It is suggested that persistent expression of extracellular HMGB-1 and DNA fragments in cholesteatoma leads to TNF-α and IL-1β production, causing bone resorption and destruction.
Cell-free DNA as a Clinical Indicator in Maternal Blood
The presence of cfDNA in blood shows the presence of DNA fragments present outside the nucleus of a cell, mainly produced by an apoptotic or necrotic process, which can be considered as biological markers of pathological states.
The Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA: A Novel Biomarker of Cardiovascular Risk?
The mini review is devoted to the biological role, diagnostic and predictive value of cellfree mitochondrial DNA in patients at CV risk.


The role of macrophages in the in vitro generation of extracellular DNA from apoptotic and necrotic cells
Results indicate that macrophages play an important role in the generation of extracellular DNA from dead and dying cells, with the effect dependent on how the cell died.
Release of DNA from Dead and Dying Lymphocyte and Monocyte Cell Lines In Vitro
It is suggested that extracellular release of DNA is a consequence of apoptosis and may account for some of the DNA in the blood.
Role of macrophages in the generation of circulating blood nucleosomes from dead and dying cells.
It is suggested that the generation of blood nucleosomes depends on macrophages, with apoptosis a concomitant of a high burden of dead and dying cells.
The Generation of Extracellular DNA in SLE: the Role of Death and Sex
The origin of extracellular DNA circulating in the blood in SLE is clarified and steps in this process that can be interdicted by novel therapy are suggested.
Phagocyte receptors for apoptotic cells: recognition, uptake, and consequences.
The task is to understand and explain these diametrically opposed reactions to stimulation of the same receptors, which when microbial organisms or their products are engulfed via these receptors, inflammation results, and in many cases, acquired immunity is stimulated.
Apoptosis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation
It is reported that Hmgb1-/- necrotic cells have a greatly reduced ability to promote inflammation, which proves that the release of HMGB1 can signal the demise of a cell to its neighbours, and cells undergoing apoptosis are programmed to withhold the signal that is broadcast by cells that have been damaged or killed by trauma.