The origin and evolution of model organisms

  title={The origin and evolution of model organisms},
  author={S. Blair Hedges},
  journal={Nature Reviews Genetics},
  • S. Hedges
  • Published 1 November 2002
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Genetics
The phylogeny and timescale of life are becoming better understood as the analysis of genomic data from model organisms continues to grow. As a result, discoveries are being made about the early history of life and the origin and development of complex multicellular life. This emerging comparative framework and the emphasis on historical patterns is helping to bridge barriers among organism-based research communities. 

Genomes, phylogeny, and evolutionary systems biology

  • M. Medina
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
An overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology is presented.

The age of model organisms

The focus on the universality and simplicity of biological systems promoted by studies of 'genetically domesticated' model organisms is now fading, together, arguably, with the importance of model organisms themselves.

Emergence of the chicken as a model organism: implications for agriculture and biology.

The availability of new tools such as whole genome gene expression arrays and single nucleotide polymorphism panels, coupled with the genome sequence, will enhance the chicken's position as an ideal model organism for phylogenetics and embryology.

Differential loss of ancestral gene families as a source of genomic divergence in animals

  • A. HughesR. Friedman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
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A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

The results suggest that oxygen levels in the environment, and the ability of eukaryotes to extract energy from oxygen, as well as produce oxygen, were key factors in the rise of complex multicellular life.

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The rise of model protozoa.

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Phylogeny-wide analysis of social amoeba genomes highlights ancient origins for complex intercellular communication.

Phylogenetic dating using a concatenated data set and extensive loss of synteny indicate that DF, PP, and DD split from their last common ancestor at least 0.6 billion years ago.

Evolutionary Cell Biology of Proteins from Protists to Humans and Plants

  • H. Plattner
  • Biology
    The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology
  • 2018
Protozoan heritage is found for most important cellular structures and functions up to humans and flowering plants, and proteins have rarely been followed up systematically for maintenance or change of function or intracellular localization, acquirement of new domains, partial deletion, and refunctionalization.



The early evolution of eukaryotes: a geological perspective.

Polecular phylogenies of eukaryotic organisms imply patterns of biological and environmental history that can be tested against the geological record, and Precambrian rocks show evidence of episodic increases in biological diversity and atmospheric oxygen concentrations.

The origin and early evolution of plants on land

A recent surge of interest in palaeobotanical discoveries and advances in the systematics of living plants provides a revised perspective on the evolution of early land plants and suggests new directions for future research.

Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution

The combination of these phylogenies with powerful new statistical approaches for the analysis of biological evolution is challenging widely held beliefs about the history and evolution of life on Earth.

The new animal phylogeny: reliability and implications.

DNA sequence analysis dictates new interpretation of phylogenic trees and forces us to rethink the genesis of bilaterian complexity.

Early life on earth

This study is organized around three themes: the origin and early diversification of life during the Archean Eon; the maturation of life and the Earth during the long Proterozoic Eon; and the

Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms

  • C. WoeseG. Fox
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
A phylogenetic analysis based upon ribosomal RNA sequence characterization reveals that living systems represent one of three aboriginal lines of descent: the eubacteria, comprising all typical bacteria, the archaebacteria, and the urkaryotes, now represented in the cytoplasmic component of eukaryotic cells.

The origin and early diversification of angiosperms

New palaeobotanical discoveries and phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have clarified the initial phases of this radiation and changed the perspective on early angiosperm evolution, though important issues remain unresolved.

Early animal evolution: emerging views from comparative biology and geology.

The Cambrian appearance of fossils representing diverse phyla has long inspired hypotheses about possible genetic or environmental catalysts of early animal evolution. Only recently, however, have

A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes

BackgroundGenomic sequence analyses have shown that horizontal gene transfer occurred during the origin of eukaryotes as a consequence of symbiosis. However, details of the timing and number of

A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere.

Over three decades of molecular-phylogenetic studies, researchers have compiled an increasingly robust map of evolutionary diversification showing that the main diversity of life is microbial,