The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs

  title={The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs},
  author={Max Cardoso Langer and Mart{\'i}n Daniel Ezcurra and Jonathas S. Bittencourt and Fernando Emilio Novas},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
The oldest unequivocal records of Dinosauria were unearthed from Late Triassic rocks (approximately 230 Ma) accumulated over extensional rift basins in southwestern Pangea. The better known of these are Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, Pisanosaurus mertii, Eoraptor lunensis, and Panphagia protos from the Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina, and Staurikosaurus pricei and Saturnalia tupiniquim from the Santa Maria Formation, Brazil. No uncontroversial dinosaur body fossils are known from older… 

The origins of Dinosauria: much ado about nothing

  • M. Langer
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2014
Research this century has greatly improved our knowledge of the origin and early radiation of dinosaurs. The unearthing of several new dinosaurs and close outgroups from Triassic rocks from various


  • M. Langer
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2014
Research this century has greatly improved our knowledge of the origin and early radiation of dinosaurs. The unearthing of several new dinosaurs and close out- groups from Triassic rocks from various

A paraphyletic ‘Silesauridae' as an alternative hypothesis for the initial radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs

Ornithischia changes from an obscure to a well-documented clade in the Triassic and is represented by records from Gondwana and Laurasia and was the first group of dinosaurs to adopt an omnivorous/herbivorous diet.

A reassessment of the basal dinosaur Guaibasaurus candelariensis, from the Late Triassic Caturrita Formation of south Brazil

ABSTRACT The dinosaur record of the Santa Maria beds of Rio Grande do Sul (Mid–Late Triassic; south Brazil) includes the herrerasaur Staurikosaurus pricei, and two basal members of the sauropodomorph

Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic

Investigating trace fossils and body fossils from the Early–Middle Triassic of Poland demonstrates that the rise of dinosaurs was a drawn-out affair, perhaps initiated during recovery from the Permo-Triassic extinction.

A re-evaluation of the enigmatic dinosauriform Caseosaurus crosbyensis from the Late Triassic of Texas, USA and its implications for early dinosaur evolution

Comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Caseosaurus crosbyensis belongs in a clade with herrerasaurs and that this clade is the sister taxon of Dinosauria, rather than positioned within it, and implies that Dinosauria should be regarded as composed exclusively of Ornithoscelida and Sauropodomorpha.

Non-dinosaurian Dinosauromorpha

Abstract Ichnological evidence suggests that dinosauromorphs originated by the Early Triassic, and skeletal remains of non-dinosaur representatives of the clade occur from the Anisian to the end of

A late-surviving basal theropod dinosaur from the latest Triassic of North America

Various features of the skull of Daemonosaurus, including the procumbent dentary and premaxillary teeth and greatly enlarged premaxilla and anterior maxillary teeth, clearly set this taxon apart from coeval neotheropods and demonstrate unexpected disparity in cranial shape among theropod dinosaurs just prior to the end of the Triassic.

Dating the origin of dinosaurs

  • H. Sues
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2016
It is proposed that dinosaurs gradually diversified at middle to high paleolatitudes, and the global standard marine stages of the Triassic Period were established: Scythian, Anisian, Ladinian, Carnian, Norian, and Rhaetian.



Early dinosaurs: A phylogenetic study

A new cladistic analysis of the early dinosaur radiation was performed to assess the relationships among the three major clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda) and to define the phylogenetic position of the basal members of the group.

Dinosaur origins: evidence from the footprint record

Triassic tracks and trackways assigned to dinosaur trackmakers or closest relatives have been mentioned from several Middle to the latest Triassic successions from both northern and southern Pangea.


The Rosario do Sul Group is one of the better-known tetrapod-bearing continental deposits of Triassic age. It crops out in central Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, and has yielded a fauna of more

A Late Triassic dinosauriform from south Brazil and the origin of the ornithischian predentary bone

The South American Late Triassic offers the most comprehensive window to the early radiation of dinosaurs, enhanced by the discovery of Sacisaurus agudoensis, a new dinosauriform from the Caturrita Formation of Brazil, which has a pair of elements forming the tip of its lower jaw hypothesized to be equivalent to the ornithischian predentary.

A new Triassic vertebrate fauna from Antarctica and its depositional setting

A new fauna of late Early to early Middle Triassic vertebrates has been found in the upper member of the Fremouw Formation in the Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica. It includes Cynognathus, a

Late Triassic dinosaursfrom the western United States

A new ornithischian dinosaur from the Triassic of North America

  • S. Chatterjee
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    The Science of Nature
  • 2004
Ornithischians, which rank among the best known and most diverse groups of dinosaurs, ranged throughout most of the Mesozoic, but their early history is obscure. Knowledge of the oldest

Dinosaurian precursors from the Middle Triassic of Argentina: Marasuchus lilloensis, gen. nov.

Several synapomorphies unite Marasuchus and dinosaurs (as Dinosauriformes) to the exclusion of the contemporary dinosauromorph Lagerpeton and pterosaurs.

The early Triassic rhynchosaur Mesosuchus browni and the interrelationships of basal archosauromorph reptiles

  • D. Dilkes
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1998
Extensions of the temporal ranges of several lineages of diapsids into the Late Permian suggests that more groups of terrestrial reptiles survived the end-Permian mass extinction than thought previously.

A new Triassic carnivorous dinosaur from Argentina

Abstract. A new Triassic theropod, Zupaysaurusrougieriis described from La Rioja Province and its phylogenetic relationships amongst Theropoda are discussed. Zupaysaurusshares with Tetanurae several