The origin and early diversification of angiosperms

  title={The origin and early diversification of angiosperms},
  author={Peter R. Crane and Else Marie Friis and Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen},
The major diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) in the Early Cretaceous, between about 130 and 90 million years ago, initiated fundamental changes in terrestrial ecosystems and set in motion processes that generated most of the extant plant diversity. New palaeobotanical discoveries, combined with recent phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data, have clarified the initial phases of this radiation and changed our perspective on early angiosperm evolution, though… 

The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification

Model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled, allow us to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of flowers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angiosperm research.

Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms

Divergence time estimates calibrated by minimum age constraints from 43 fossils indicate that most of the subfamilies representing extant ants arose much earlier than previously proposed but only began to diversify during the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene, which also witnessed the rise of angiosperms and most herbivorous insects.

The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification

Model-based reconstructions for ancestral angiospermflowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms are reported, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled, to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of ﵂owers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angios perms.

Form, function and environments of the early angiosperms: merging extant phylogeny and ecophysiology with fossils.

This work synthesizes the current understanding of early angiosperm ecology, focusing on patterns of functional ecology, by merging recent molecular phylogenetic studies and functional studies on extant 'basal angiosperms' with the picture of earlyAngiosperm evolution drawn by the fossil record.

After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery

The ‘anthophyte theory’, the dominant concept of the 1980s and 1990s, has been eclipsed; Gnetales, previously thought to be closest to the angiosperms, are related instead to other extant gymnos perms, probably most closely to conifers.

Flower-associated brachycera flies as fossil evidence for jurassic angiosperm origins

  • Ren
  • Geography
  • 1998
Functional morphology and comparison with modern confamilial taxa show that the orthorrhaphous Brachycera were some of the most ancient pollinators, and imply that angiosperms originated during the Late Jurassic and were represented by at least two floral types.

The ecophysiology of early angiosperms.

How early angiosperms established a roothold in pre-existing Mesozoic plant communities, and how these events canalized subsequent bursts of angiosperm diversification during the Aptian-Albian are discussed.

Early Cretaceous lineages of monocot flowering plants.

  • K. Bremer
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
Plastid DNA rbcL sequences and eight reference fossils indicate that approximately 14 of the extant monocot lineages may have diverged from each other during the Early Cretaceous >100 million years B.P.

Ecological aspects of the Cretaceous flowering plant radiation

Morphology of leaves, seeds, and wood is consistent with the status of most Cretaceous angiosperms as herbs to small trees with early successional strategy, and analyses of sedimentary environments indicate that angios perms not only originated in unstable habitats but remained centered there through most of theCretaceous.



Shifts in Diversification Rate with the Origin of Angiosperms

Four hypotheses for the basal relationships of angiosperms were examined by methods that are robust to uncertainty about the timing of internal branch points.

Molecular evidence for pre-Cretaceous angiosperm origins

Molecular evidence is reported suggesting that angiosperm ancestors underwent diversification more than 300 Myr ago, suggesting their origins and early evolution remain obscure.

Origin of Angiosperms

In the apparent absence of critical fossil evidence, ideas on the origin of angios­ perms have been based largely on comparative morphology of modern plants, including Axelrod's theory that the angiosperms originated and began to diversify extensively in tropical upland areas as early as the Permian or Triassic.

Integration of morphological and ribosomal RNA data on the origin of angiosperms

Experiments with a revised seed plant morphological data set raise further questions: when angiosperms are scored like different angiosperm subgroups, they associate with different outgroups, although Gnetales are their closest living relatives.

An Aptian Plant with Attached Leaves and Flowers: Implications for Angiosperm Origin

A variety of data suggests a similar morphology for the ancestral angiosperm, which explains similarities between rhizomatous to herbaceous Magnoliidae and basal monocots, scarcity of early agniosperm wood, and lack of recognition of earlier remains.

Molecular evolutionary history of ancient aquatic angiosperms.

The results support hypotheses that most taxonomic concepts of the order Nymphaeales reflect polyphyletic groups and that the unusual genus Ceratophyllum represents descendants of some of the earliest angiosperms.

The Rise of the Angiosperms: A Genecological Factor

The hypothesis is presented that, whatever the origin and other functions of angiosperms, insect pollination and closed carpels may, in combination, reduce the influence of random variation on pollen tube competition, thus enhancing the ability of natural selection to act on the gametophytic phase of the life cycle.

Patterns of floral construction in ontogeny and phylogeny

Diversity of floral structure occurs at different levels, with emphasis either on number and arrangement or on synorganization and form of the structural elements. The first level is shown here with