The origin, development and future of spintronics

@article{Fert2008TheOD,
  title={The origin, development and future of spintronics},
  author={Albert Fert},
  journal={Physics-Uspekhi},
  year={2008},
  volume={178},
  pages={1336}
}
  • A. Fert
  • Published 1 December 2008
  • Physics
  • Physics-Uspekhi
Electrons have a charge and a spin, but until recently, charges and spins have been considered separately. In conventional electronics, the charges are manipulated by electric fields but the spins are ignored. Other classical technologies, magnetic recording for example, are using the spin but only through its macroscopic manifestation, the magnetization of a ferromagnet. This picture started to change in 1988 when the discovery1-2 of the Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR) of the magnetic… 

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