At Zurich fragmentation of gallstones is a joint venture between the Visceral Surgery Clinic, the Medical Clinic, Medical Policlinic, Radiodiagnostic Central Institute and Urologic Clinic. Lithotripsy is performed by a team from the Visceral Surgery Clinic with apparatus placed at their disposal by the Urologic Clinic. Indications for lithotripsy include symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, functioning gallbladder, and up to 3 gallstones of at least 10 mm and at most 30 mm diameter. Bile duct stones, acute cholecystitis, coagulopathy, pregnancy, aortic aneurysm and pacemakers are exclusion criteria. Patients spend two days in hospital, lithotripsy is performed without anesthesia, and outpatient follow-up is performed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months afterwards. Our experiences show that lithotripsy is more difficult and more treatments are needed if multiple gallstones are present. We had to perform cholecystectomy in 6 of a total 48 patients, mainly because of therapy resistant biliary pain due to stone fragments. The intraoperative findings did not correspond to the ultrasonic examination before lithotripsy in two of the patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Histologic examination of the six gallbladders in the surgical cases showed no abnormality. After an average treatment duration of 209 days, 9 of 48 patients are stone-free, 15 patients show improvement, in 14 patients no distinct reduction of fragments could yet be shown in recent follow-ups and 4 patients have not yet been reached for follow-up. Of the 230 patients examined lithotripsy was indicated only in 48 (21%) cases.