The opioid epidemic in pediatrics: a 2020 update.

  title={The opioid epidemic in pediatrics: a 2020 update.},
  author={Myron Yaster and Peggy P. McNaull and Peter J. Davis},
  journal={Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology},
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Over the last 3 years and for the first time in 60 years, life expectancy in the United States has declined across all racial groups primarily because of drug overdoses, alcohol abuse, and suicide. A public health response to the opioid crisis must expand its focus to more broadly include children, adolescents, and young adults while increasing efforts toward preventing new cases of opioid addiction, early identification of individuals with opioid-abuse disorder, and ensuring… 

The North American Opioid Epidemic.

The history, underlying issues, ongoing national regulatory efforts, and future strategies and therapies to help mitigate the opioid crisis in North America are highlighted.

Risk of exposure to prescription opioids in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A nationwide longitudinal study

  • Ju-Wei HsuS. Tsai Mu-Hong Chen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research
  • 2022
It is found that patients with ASD were more likely to be exposed to prescription opioids, including intravenous or intramuscular opioids and oral or transcutaneous opioids, than were non‐ASD controls, and close monitoring of prescription opioid use is necessary for at‐risk children and adolescents with ASD.

Factors Influencing Racial and Ethnic Differences in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among Young Adolescents in the USA, 2009–2019

In this study, significant racial and ethnic differences in the trends of POM were observed andicit drug use and misuse of other prescription drugs substantially explained theracial and ethnic disparities in POM among young adolescents.

Pharmacy students’ attitude towards opioid epidemic and overdose management

The findings of the study indicate that pharmacy students are willing to receive additional education to improve preparedness in managing opioid abuse situations and are not prepared to manage opioid overdose situations and administer opioid antidotes, such as naloxone.

Pain management in people with hemophilia in childhood and young adulthood

Management of musculoskeletal pain in children and young adults with hemophilia should employ multimodal pain treatment (multimodal analgesia, PRM, and psychological strategies).

Adolescent Suicide—Understanding Unique Risks and Opportunities for Trauma Centers to Recognize, Intervene, and Prevent a Leading Cause of Death

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in US adolescents, and trauma patients have significant risk factors for mental illness and suicidality before and after injury.

Outpatient Opioid Prescribing Habits in Pediatric Patients With Bone Sarcomas After Undergoing Primary Tumor Resection

Evaluating the patterns of outpatient opioid prescription in patients with bone sarcomas after resection of the primary tumor found multiple factors were associated with increased opioid use including preoperative opioid use, longer postoperative stay in the hospital, metastatic disease, and primary sarcoma in the pelvis.

Pediatric Hip Disease Increases the Risk for Opioid Use in Adulthood: Long-term Burden of Pain and Depression.

During childhood, patients with LCPD or SCFE seem to suffer long-term pain and have an increased risk of requiring analgesic medication in adulthood, including opioids, according to this study.

Intravenous acetaminophen for postoperative pain control after open abdominal and thoracic surgery in pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

It is concluded that the addition of IVA to opioid-based regimes in pediatric patients may reduce opioid use and minor AEs without increasing postoperative pain.



Children and families of the opioid epidemic: Under the radar.

Chronic Opioid Use After Surgery: Implications for Perioperative Management in the Face of the Opioid Epidemic

An analysis of the extent to which opioid-sparing perioperative interventions have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic opioid use after surgery and a discussion of future research directions are presented.

Prescription Opioid Abuse in Chronic Pain: An Updated Review of Opioid Abuse Predictors and Strategies to Curb Opioid Abuse: Part 1.

The current state of knowledge regarding the growing problem of opioid abuse and misuse; known risk factors; and methods of predicting, assessing, monitoring, and addressing opioid Abuse and misuse in patients with chronic non-cancer pain are reviewed.

The Potential Impact on Children of the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain: Above All, Do No Harm.

This document is intended to offer recommendations for prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer, palliative, and end-of-life care and is concerned that because this guideline is written for primary care clinicians, family physicians and pediatricians will assumethat they can be extrapolated downward to thepediatric population for whom it was not intended.

Association between opioid prescribing patterns and opioid overdose-related deaths.

Among patients receiving opioid prescriptions for pain, higher opioid doses were associated with increased risk of opioid overdose death, and receiving both as-needed and regularly scheduled doses was not associated with overdose risk after adjustment.

Responsible, Safe, and Effective Prescription of Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Guidelines.

These guidelines are intended to provide a systematic and standardized approach to this complex and difficult arena of practice, while recognizing that every clinical situation is unique.

Leftover prescription opioids after minor procedures: an unwitting source for accidental overdose in children.

The opioid doses dispensed to children with the amount used following minor outpatient procedures to estimate the unused drugs remaining in children’s homes and inform future opioid prescribing are compared to reduce the amounts of unused drugs available for adverse events and misuse.

Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths--United States, 2000-2014.

Findings indicate that the opioid overdose epidemic is worsening and there is a need for continued action to prevent opioid abuse, dependence, and death, improve treatment capacity for opioid use disorders, and reduce the supply of illicit opioids, particularly heroin and illicit fentanyl.

Opioid Prescribing for the Treatment of Acute Pain in Children on Hospital Discharge

The need for evidence-based opioid prescribing guidelines for physicians treating acute pain in children is underscored, as Pediatric providers frequently prescribed more opioid than needed to treat pain.