The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution

  title={The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution},
  author={Xijun Ni and Daniel Lee Gebo and Marian Dagosto and Jin Meng and Paul Tafforeau and John J. Flynn and K. Christopher Beard},
Reconstructing the earliest phases of primate evolution has been impeded by gaps in the fossil record, so that disagreements persist regarding the palaeobiology and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest primates. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete and partly articulated skeleton of a primitive haplorhine primate from the early Eocene of China, about 55 million years ago, the oldest fossil primate of this quality ever recovered. Coupled with detailed morphological examination… 
Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates
Results of phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support Purgatorius as the geologically oldest known primate and postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene.
Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Lemurs Inferred with Recent and Ancient Fossils in the Tree.
This is the first study to combine morphological and DNA sequence data from extinct and extant primates to infer evolutionary relationships and divergence times, and the results shed new light on the tempo of lemur evolution and the efficacy of combined phylogenetic analyses.
An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving “living fossils”
A new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene of China is reported that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group oftreeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record.
Life history of the most complete fossil primate skeleton: exploring growth models for Darwinius
An alternative strepsirrhine model based on Eulemur and Varecia is presented, which shows an older age at death than previously suggested (1.05–1.14 years), while the range for adult weight is entirely below the range proposed previously.
The evolutionary radiation of plesiadapiforms
A summary of the incredible diversity of plesiadapiform morphology and adaptations is provided, reviewing the knowledge of all eleven families and more than 140 species, which, in some cases, were like nothing seen since in the primate order.
Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene
Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids.
Phylogenetic analysis on Palaeogale(Palaeogalidae,Carnivora) based on specimens from Oligocene strata of Saint-Jacques,Nei Mongol
  • W. Jia
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2015
A partial skull, a pair of nearly complete lower jaws, some vertebrae and ribs are found, which is by far the most complete specimen of Palaeogale discovered from Asia.
Chapter 12 – Fossil Prosimians


The oldest known anthropoid postcranial fossils and the early evolution of higher primates
Foot bones of Eosimias from the same middle Eocene sites in China that yield abundant dental remains of this primate substantiate the anthropoid status of EOSimias and clarify the phylogenetic position of anthropoids with respect to other major primate clades.
The oldest North American primate and mammalian biogeography during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum
  • K. Beard
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
Fossils from the Tuscahoma Formation are described, documenting an anatomically primitive species of Teilhardina that is older than other North American and European primates and indicates that primates originally colonized North America near the base of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, but before an important fall in eustatic sea level.
Cranial remains of an Eocene tarsier.
Cranial material of a fossil tarsiid from the middle-Eocene Shanghuang fissure-fillings in southern Jiangsu Province, China is described, indicating that tarsiers already possessed greatly enlarged orbits and a haplorhine oronasal configuration by the time they are first documented in the fossil record during the middle Eocene.
Earliest Complete Dentition of an Anthropoid Primate from the Late Middle Eocene of Shanxi Province, China
The complete lower dentition of a new species of the basal anthropoid genus Eosimias shows a combination of primitive and derived traits unknown in other living or fossil primates, supporting the anthropoid affinities of Eosimiidae.
Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates
As the largest non-anthropoid primate ever documented in Afro-Arabia, Afradapis provides surprising new evidence for prosimian diversity in the Eocene of Africa, and raises the possibility that ecological competition between adapiforms and higher primates might have played an important role during the early evolution of stem and crown Anthropoidea inAfro- Arabia.
Middle Eocene primate tarsals from China: implications for haplorhine evolution.
The anthropoid tarsals are morphologically transitional between omomyids (or primitive haplorhines) and extant telanthropoids, providing the first postcranial evidence for primates which bridge the prosimian-anthropoid gap.
Primate Adaptation and Evolution
This new edition brings this coverage up to date with the latest fossil finds and most current research, and retains its grounding in the extant primate groups as the best way to understand the fossil trail and the evolution of these modern forms.
Species diversity and postcranial anatomy of eocene primates from Shanghuang, China
The middle Eocene Shanghuang fissure‐fillings, located in southern Jiangsu Province in China near the coastal city of Shanghai (Fig. 1 ), contain a remarkably diverse array of fossil primates that
The Earliest Primates
The known range of the Primates is extended down from the middle Paleocene to the early Paleocene and late Cretaceous by a new genus and two new species from Montana, Purgatorius unio and P.