The official World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) standards for recording and scoring periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness (PLMW) developed in collaboration with a task force from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG).

  title={The official World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) standards for recording and scoring periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness (PLMW) developed in collaboration with a task force from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG).},
  author={Marco Zucconi and Raffaele Ferri and Richard P. Allen and Paul Christian Baier and Oliviero Bruni and Sudhansu Chokroverty and Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Stephany Fulda and Diego Garcia-Borreguero and W. Hening and Max Hirshkowitz and Birgit H{\"o}gl and Magdolna Hornyak and Martin King and Pasquale Montagna and Liborio Parrino and Giuseppe Plazzi and Mario G. Terzano},
  journal={Sleep medicine},
  volume={7 2},
This pilot study investigated the use of a numeric algorithm for polysomnographic assessment of sleep disruption and resultant sleep pressure by leg movement disturbances (SPSL), in order to shed new light on this old controversy.
Effects of new PLM scoring rules on PLM rate in relation to sleep and resting wake for RLS and healthy controls.
The results confirmed that that the 2016 compared to the 2006 criteria generally decreased the PLM rates with particularly large decreases for the conditions with more random non-PLM events, e.g. wake times and normal healthy controls, and supported the view that the new criteria succeeded in increasing the specificity of PLM detection.
Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector
The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts.
The time structure of leg movement activity during sleep: the theory behind the practice.
The scoring of movements in sleep.
  • A. Walters, G. Lavigne, S. Ancoli-Israel
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
  • 2007
The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation and a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.
The Clinical Importance of Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep
This chapter tries to sum up the most relevant PLMS-related findings, focusing on the relationship between PLMS and the cardiovascular system, in order to understand the clinical implication of this complex motor phenomenon.


Variability of periodic leg movements in various sleep disorders: implications for clinical and pathophysiologic studies.
The variability of PLMS indexes should be considered if the PLMS recording is performed in support of the clinical diagnosis or in the interpretation of studies investigating drug efficacy, because a fluctuation in the number ofPLMS may influence the outcome of pharmacologic and pathophysiologic studies.
Immobilization tests and periodic leg movements in sleep for the diagnosis of restless leg syndrome
The SIT has several advantages over the measure of the PLMS index; it does not require an all‐night polygraphic recording and can be administered several times a day to measure circadian fluctuation of motor restlessness.
Practice parameters for the use of portable monitoring devices in the investigation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in adults.
The use of PM devices is not recommended for general-population screening or for complaints other than those associated with OSA, without review of raw data during interpretation, by physicians without familiarity with their use and limitations, and without trained personnel to perform technical scoring.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders
This outstanding manual is more than an outline; it includes diagnostic criteria, clinical course, predisposing factors, prevalence, differential diagnosis, and a bibliography for each of the numerous disorders.
The cyclic alternating pattern plays a gate-control on periodic limb movements during non-rapid eye movement sleep.
The present study indicates an entrainment of nocturnal myoclonus by means of CAP and sheds light on the complex interactions between arousal mechanisms and motor phenomena during sleep.
The cyclic alternating pattern as a physiologic component of normal NREM sleep.
The cyclic alternating pattern is the EEG translation of the reorganization of the sleeping brain challenged by the modification of environmental conditions.
Thorpy MJ The international classification of sleep disorders
  • J. Krieger
  • Medicine
    Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology
  • 1992