Subcellular Localization and Kinetic Characterization of a Gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii
P-type ATPases constitute a ubiquitous superfamily of cation transport enzymes, responsible for carrying out actions of paramount importance in biology such as ion transport and expulsion of toxic ions from cells. The harmonized toggling of gates in the extra- and intracellular domains explain the phenomenon of specific cation binding in selective physiological states. A quantitative understanding of the fundamental aspects of ion transport mechanism and regulation of P-type ATPases requires detailed knowledge of thermodynamical, structural, and functional properties. Computational studies have made significant contributions to our understanding of biological ion pumps. Various 3D structures of Ca(2+) -ATPase between E1 and E2 transition states have given a impetus to the theorists to work on the Na(+) K(+) - and H(+) K(+) -ATPase to address important questions about their function. The current review delineates the importance of cation, nucleotide, and inhibitor binding domains, with a focus on the therapeutic potential and biological relevance of the three P-type II ATPases. This will give an insight into the ion selectivity and their conduction across the transmembrane helices of P-type II ATPases, which may pave the way to a range of fundamental questions about the mechanism and aid in the efforts of structure- and analog-based drug design.