Neuronal development and process targeting is mediated by proteins of the cytoskeleton. However, the signaling pathways underlying these mechanisms are complex and have not yet been fully elucidated. Neuronal protein 22 (NP22) has been identified as a cytoskeleton-associated protein. It colocalizes with microtubules and actin, the two major components of the cytoskeleton. It contains numerous signaling motifs and induces process formation in non-neuronal cells. Expression of rat NP22 (rNP22) rises incrementally at specific time points during brain development, with the greatest elevation occurring during synaptogenesis in the rat brain. Its neuronal localization is primarily at the plasma membrane of the soma in the embryonic brain and progresses into homogeneous expression in the postnatal rat brain. Data suggest that NP22 may play a role in mediating the molecular events governing development of the neuronal architecture. Furthermore, its sustained expression in postnatal brain implies a function in the maintenance of neuronal morphology.