The noradrenergic symptom cluster: clinical expression and neuropharmacology


Signs and symptoms of depression can be linked to one or more monoaminergic systems, specifically the norepinephrine (NE), the dopamine (DA), and the serotonin (5-HT) systems. In particular, the modulation of energy, vigilance, and arousal can be directly linked to the NE system. There is, however, a great deal of overlap in the modulation of the symptoms… (More)
DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S19613


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