The new pre-preclinical paradigm: compound optimization in early and late phase drug discovery.

  title={The new pre-preclinical paradigm: compound optimization in early and late phase drug discovery.},
  author={Gary W. Caldwell and David M. Ritchie and John A. Masucci and William E Hageman and Z. Yan},
  journal={Current topics in medicinal chemistry},
  volume={1 5},
The attrition rates of new chemical entities (NCEs) in preclinical and clinical development are staggeringly high. NCEs are abandoned due to insufficient efficacy, safety issues, and economic reasons. Uncovering drug defects that produce these failures as early as possible in drug discovery would be highly effective in lowing the cost and time of developing therapeutically useful drugs. Unfortunately, there is no single factor that can account for these NCE failures in preclinical and clinical… 

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