The new Richmond HRR pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is better than the Ishihara test

  title={The new Richmond HRR pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is better than the Ishihara test},
  author={Barry L. Cole and Ka-Yee Lian and Carol Lakkis},
  journal={Clinical and Experimental Optometry},
Aim:  The Hardy‐Rand‐Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is highly regarded but has long been out of print. Richmond Products produced a new edition in 2002 that has been re‐engineered to rectify shortcomings of the original test. This study is a validation trial of the new test using a larger sample and different criteria of evaluation from those of the previously reported validation study. 
Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates
A set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds was produced and a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level was reported, comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR) test.
Comparison of the Richmond HRR 4th edition and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test for quantitative assessment of tritan color deficiencies.
A test that compares six tritan plates from the HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates 4th edition to 16 FM 100 Hue tritan caps, which showed quantitative differences in error rates with all light levels; thus they could serve equally well for assessing acquired deficiencies.
The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates
Results show that a total color difference value ΔE threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, and this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements.
Multispectral analysis and cone signal modelling of pseudoisochromatic test plates
The aim of the study is to determine the consistency of the desired colour reproduction of the stimuli using calibrated printing technology available to anyone (EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer was). 24
The Evolution of Colour Vision Testing
This review outlines the theoretical development and historical evolution of colour vision tests, from the 19th until this early part of the 21st century, and speculation is made on how the tests will evolve in the future, with increasingly refined computer technology.
Comparison of Ishihara and Hardy-Rand-Rittler Pseudoisochromatic Plates in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
The anomaloscope that was considered the “gold standard” has several limitations and may not detect all acquired dyschromatopia, and whilst it is correct that pseudoisochromatic plates are screening tests and the results must be correlated with other optic nerve functions, the HRR test has a higher sensitivity and specificity than Ishihara colour plates in detecting Dyschromatopsia in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy eyes.
Poorer color discrimination by females when tested with pseudoisochromatic plates containing vanishing designs on neutral backgrounds
According to reports of female carriers of color-vision deficiency having problems with the Ishihara test and of females having poorer color discrimination than males, Norway's NTCV test results show that normal trichromatic females are more likely to perform than males in terms of color discrimination.
Comparative Analysis of the Mollon-reffin Minimal Colour Vision Test in Visually ‘Normal’ and Acquired Ocular Disease
The Mollon-reffinMinimal Test (MRMT) is compared against the Ishihara and City colour vision tests to assess correlation levels between tests for defect detection, severity grading and defect type classification.
Detection of Congenital Color Vision Deficiency by Using Hardy-Rand-Rittler Pseudoisochromatic Test Plates
The HRR test may be used to detect, classify and grade severity of CVD and to detect the state of awareness of people about their abnormal color vision, which was significantly associated with male gender and increased severity of the disease.
Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin’s Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test
The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test, separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies.


Colorimetric analysis of four editions of the Hardy-Rand-Rittler pseudoisochromatic tests
  • S. Dain
  • Medicine
    Visual Neuroscience
  • 2004
While the two most recent editions much more closely resemble the original AO HRR and the chromaticities are much better aligned on the dichromatic confusion lines, the excitation purities of the plates are less well matched in the Richmond Products editions.
Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test
The new 4th edition of the HRR test, produced in 2002 by Richmond Products, is evaluated for a group of subjects with normal color vision and a group who had been previously diagnosed as having color vision deficiencies.
Tests for color deficiency based on the pseudoisochromatic principle; a comparative study of several new tests.
Tests composed of pseudoisochromatic plates provide one of the simplest methods of distinguishing between normal and deficient red-green color perception and various selections of the more highly diagnostic plates were proposed.
An evaluation of the AO H-R-R pseudoisochromatic plates; a test for detecting, classifying, and estimating the degree of defective color vision.
The report will deal only with the test as a device for analyzing red-green vision, since the number of subjects who have made errors in the blue-yellow series of plates is too small to warrant conclusions as to the value of the plates of this series.
The C‐100:a new dichotomiser of colour vision defectives
This paper evaluates a new instrument (C‐100) which employs flicker photometry or silent substitution to determine the type of colour vision defect (protan or deutan). Specifically, this study
Does the Farnsworth D15 test predict the ability to name colours?
The Farnsworth D15 test is widely used to provide advice to patients with abnormal colour vision and is often used for occupational selection when reliable recognition of surface colour codes is required, but there has been no study of whether a person who passes the D15 can reliably name surface colours.
Clinical use of the American Optical Company (Hardy, Rand and Rittler) pseudoisochromatic plates for red‐green colour deficiency
  • J. Birch
  • Physics
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 1997
The results show that only two rather than four grading categories can be distinguished by the HRR plates and that both the D15 and theHRR plates are needed in a vocational test battery to establish the severity of colour deficiency.
H–R–R Polychromatic Plates*
The practical importance of a simply administered, comprehensive test, such as is provided by the H-R-R plates, to vocational selection and guidance is discussed, and an example given of their application in the radio and television industry.
Effect of illumination in testing color vision with pseudo-isochromatic plates.
  • I. Schmidt
  • Engineering
    Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • 1952
It is recommended that only artificial daylight of a standardized color temperature and intensity be used to obtain comparable results in pseudo-isochromatic plate tests.