The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and varicella-zoster

@article{Steiner2007TheNH,
  title={The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and varicella-zoster},
  author={I. Steiner and P. Kennedy and A. Pachner},
  journal={The Lancet Neurology},
  year={2007},
  volume={6},
  pages={1015-1028}
}
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia for the entire life of the host. From this reservoir they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although the viruses vary in the clinical disorders they cause and in their molecular structure, they share several features that affect the course of infection of the human nervous system. HSV1 is the causative agent of encephalitis, corneal… Expand

Paper Mentions

Blog Post
Herpes virus infection of the peripheral nervous system.
  • I. Steiner
  • Medicine
  • Handbook of clinical neurology
  • 2013
TLDR
The present review details the virology and molecular biology underlying the human infection and detailed description of the symtomatology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, course, therapy, and prognosis of disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by these viruses. Expand
Varicella-zoster virus human ganglionic latency: a current summary
TLDR
It is now established beyond doubt that latent VZV is predominantly located in human ganglionic neurons and virus gene transcription during latency is epigenetically regulated, and appears to be restricted to expression of at least six genes, with expression of gene 63 being the hallmark of latency. Expand
Neurologic Complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection
TLDR
Clinicians should be aware of the neurologic complications of VZV infection, because early acyclovir therapy is necessary for these disorders, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid by PCR is important for the diagnosis of VzV-associated CNS diseases particularly in the absence of exanthema/herpes zoster. Expand
Varicella zoster vs. herpes simplex meningoencephalitis in the PCR era. A single center study
TLDR
While patients with HSV ME had more manifestations of severe disease, there also was a significant overlap with clinical and laboratory parameters of VZV ME, confirming the prevalence of V zoster virus as a cause of sporadic ME over the last decade. Expand
Herpes-zoster virus ophthalmicus as presenting sign of HIV disease
TLDR
This case reports a 32 year old female who presented with neuralgia and clinical features of crusting skin ulcers involving the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, corneal dendritis and anterior uveitis with circumlimbal injection of the right eye, consistent with Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Expand
The toll (like receptor 3) to the pathogenesis of herpes simplex encephalitis
TLDR
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human virus that infects the majority of the world's population, and HSE, the most serious CNS manifestation, is a rare consequence of HSV's interaction with its human host. Expand
Herpes Zoster Meningoencephalitis: Not Only a Disease of the Immunocompromised?
TLDR
This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics, CSF parameters, treatment regimens, and outcomes of patients with neurological manifestations of VZV infection who had been treated at this institution since the advent of PCR testing on CSF. Expand
Disseminated herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus co-infection in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
TLDR
This is the first case of disseminated HSV-1 and VZV infection with molecular evidence of the simultaneous presence of both viruses in two different body sites (the skin and cerebrospinal fluid) and the three reports of patients developing cutaneous disseminated herpes zoster multiple years after splenectomy for ITP. Expand
Herpesvirus Infections of the Central Nervous System.
TLDR
The epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, treatment, sequelae, and availability of vaccination of each of the following herpesviruses are discussed. Expand
Interleukin 10, Tumor necrosis factor α, and Interferon ɣ levels in herpes zoster patients in Babylon– Iraq
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection is thought to happen via the inhalation of virus either inExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 196 REFERENCES
Latent varicella-zoster virus is located predominantly in neurons in human trigeminal ganglia.
TLDR
The neuron is the predominant site of latent VZV in human trigeminal ganglia, according to a number of conflicting reports regarding the cellular location of latentVZV within human ganglia. Expand
Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system. Encephalitis and neonatal herpes.
TLDR
This review summarises the current understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of HSV infections of the central nervous system and stresses the value of intervention with appropriate antiviral drugs such as aciclovir and vidarabine. Expand
A molecular and cellular model to explain the differences in reactivation from latency by herpes simplex and varicella–zoster viruses
TLDR
A model based on current knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of latent infection in the nervous system suggests that the amount of latent viral DNA and RNA in the latently infected tissue, the cellular location of latent virus, the presence or absence of viral replication in the PSG during reactivation together with the host immune response, are all key determinants of the clinical expression of viral reactivation. Expand
Varicella‐zoster virus latency in human ganglia
  • P. Kennedy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Reviews in medical virology
  • 2002
TLDR
There is now a consensus that latent VZV resides predominantly in ganglionic neurons with less frequent infection of non‐neuronal satellite cells, and there is considerable evidence to show that at least five viral genes are transcribed during latency. Expand
Neurologic complications of the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus.
TLDR
The detection of varicella–zoster virus in blood vessels and other tissues by methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has widened the recognized patterns of infection. Expand
Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: encephalitis and meningitis, including Mollaret's.
  • K. Tyler
  • Medicine
  • Herpes : the journal of the IHMF
  • 2004
TLDR
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the diagnostic method of choice for HSE, but negative results need to be interpreted in the context of the patient's clinical presentation and the timing of the CSF sampling. Expand
Varicella-zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications.
  • J. Gnann
  • Medicine
  • The Journal of infectious diseases
  • 2002
TLDR
Although varicella is most often a relatively benign and self-limited childhood illness, the disease can be associated with a variety of serious and potentially lethal complications in both immunocompetent and Immunocompromised persons. Expand
Herpes-simplex-virus encephalitis: its possible association with reactivated latent infection.
TLDR
The clinical course and follow-up findings in 18 cases of herpesvirus infection of the central nervous system that occurred in the San Francisco Bay are described. Expand
Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Human UNC-93B Deficiency
TLDR
A genetic etiology for HSE is elucidated in two children with autosomal recessive deficiency in the intracellular protein UNC-93B, resulting in impaired cellular interferon-α/β and -λ antiviral responses. Expand
Epidemiology of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in Germany: what has changed?
TLDR
Seroprevalences have not changed over the last 25 years and that neurological HSV diseases are rare, however, as in the USA, a significant percentage of herpes genitalis is caused by HSV-1 in Germany. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...