The neuropsychiatry of impulsivity

  title={The neuropsychiatry of impulsivity},
  author={Samuel R. Chamberlain and Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian},
  journal={Current Opinion in Psychiatry},
Purpose of review Impulsive symptoms occur across neuropsychiatric disorders, with important ramifications for everyday functioning and quality of life. This article considers recent developments in the neuropsychological assessment of impulsivity with a focus on the ability to suppress motor responses (response inhibition). Recent findings Using objective tests, response inhibition deficits were identified in several neuropsychiatric conditions associated with impulsivity, namely attention… 

Impulsivity and neural correlates of response inhibition in schizophrenia

It is evidenced in patients with schizophrenia that greater BIS-11 scores are associated with greater activation within the right VLPFC during response inhibition, which suggests that the efficiency of this brain region to process inhibitory control is reduced in the more impulsive patients.

Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD.

An executive overload model of OCD is proposed that views neuropsychological impairments in OCD as an epiphenomenon, according to which continuous attempts to control automatic processes are associated with obsessive thoughts overflow that causes an overload on the executive system.

Functional and Structural MRI Studies on Impulsiveness: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorders

Impulsive behavior is characterized a tendency to initiate behavior without sufficient/adequate consideration of consequences. It typically refers to ill-conceived, premature or inappropriate

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Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating, chronic condition that affects up to 3% of the population. A significant number of patients do not respond or still have residual symptoms even

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Findings are the first to show that problem gambling is associated with alterations in M1 GABAA and glutamate‐mediated neurotransmission, and that poorer response inhibition was correlated with weaker M1GABAA receptor activity.

Neurocognitive endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Structural variation in large-scale brain systems related to motor inhibitory control may mediate genetic risk for OCD, representing the first evidence for a neurocognitive endophenotype of OCD.

'Speedy action over goal orientation': cognitive impulsivity in male forensic patients with dyslexia.

The findings suggest that patients with Dyslexia tend to use a cognitive impulsive style and suggest a more direct link between dyslexia and cognitive impulsivity that is not mediated by the presence of ADHD.



Computerized neuropsychological examination of impulsiveness: A selective review.

This paper reviews recent research on impulsiveness in the context of neuropsychological theory and research and states that both the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are functionally disturbed among impulsive individuals.

Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity.

Before treatment studies on impulsivity can move forward, measures of impulsivity that capture the core aspects of this behavior need to be refined and tested on the basis of an ideologically neutral model of impulsiveness.

Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania.

Impaired inhibition of motor responses (impulsivity) was found in OCD and trichotillomania, whereas cognitive inflexibility (thought to contribute to compulsivity), was limited to OCD.

Varieties of impulsivity

Evidence for varieties of impulsivity from several different areas of research, including human psychology, psychiatry and animal behaviour, suggests that several neurochemical mechanisms can influence impulsivity, and that impulsive behaviour has no unique neurobiological basis.

Fundamentals of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: circuits and pathways.

  • A. Arnsten
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of clinical psychiatry
  • 2006
Electrophysiologic studies in animals suggest that norepinephrine enhances "signals" through postsynaptic alpha2A-adrenoceptors in PFC, while dopamine decreases "noise" through modest levels of D1-receptor stimulation.