The neuropathology of autism: where do we stand?

@article{Schmitz2008TheNO,
  title={The neuropathology of autism: where do we stand?},
  author={Christoph Schmitz and Payam Rezaie},
  journal={Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={34}
}
  • C. Schmitz, P. Rezaie
  • Published 26 October 2007
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
The neurobiology and neuropathology of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain poorly defined. Brain imaging studies suggest that the deficits in social cognition, language, communication and stereotypical patterns of behaviour that are manifest in individuals with ASD, are related to functional disturbance and ‘disconnectivity’, affecting multiple brain regions. These impairments are considered to arise as a consequence of abnormal pre‐ and postnatal development of a distributed neural… 
The Neuropathology of Autism
TLDR
The significance of future controlled studies should be judged based on their explanatory powers; that is, how well do they relate to brain growth abnormalities and/or provide useful clinicopathological correlates.
The Pathogenesis of Autism
  • T. Watts
  • Medicine
    Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • 2008
TLDR
Although there is not a clear pathway of mechanisms directed towards a simple pathogenesis and an established link to autism on the symptomatic level; there are however several important theories which appear to offer an explanation to how autism develops.
The Ontogenesis of Language Impairment in Autism: A Neuropsychological Perspective
TLDR
The problems of language acquisition in AD from an evolutionary and ontogenetic context is considered and how anomalies of several processes relate to language abnormalities manifest by the early elementary school years is examined.
Neurophenomenology of the autistic disorder
Autism is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication difficulties, as well as a range of rigid, restricted and repetitive interests and activities. Autism
Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism
TLDR
The diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism will be observed, and points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, Cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism.
Focal cortical dysplasias in autism spectrum disorders
TLDR
The neuropathology is consistent with a diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), and the genesis of this cortical malformation seemingly resides in the heterochronic divisions of periventricular germinal cells.
Review: Cortical construction in autism spectrum disorder: columns, connectivity and the subplate
TLDR
A better understanding of cortical development in autism spectrum disorders will draw bridges between the microanatomical computational circuitry and the atypical behaviours that arise when that circuitry is modified, and allow us to better exploit the constructional plasticity within the brain to design more targeted interventions.
Autism as a sequence: from heterochronic germinal cell divisions to abnormalities of cell migration and cortical dysplasias.
TLDR
It is important to note that neuropathological findings in both idiopathic and syndromic autism suggests a single pathophysiological mechanism acting during brain development: the heterochronic division of germinal cells and subsequent migrational abnormalities of daughter cells to their target fields.
Immunological and autoimmune considerations of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
TLDR
Various types of studies associating ASD with the immune system are summarized, critically evaluate the quality of these studies, and attempt to integrate them in a way that clarifies the areas of immune and autoimmune phenomena in ASD research that will be important indicators for future research.
Altered neural connectivity in excitatory and inhibitory cortical circuits in autism
TLDR
A model is presented that synthesizes diverse findings by relating them to developmental events, with a goal to identify common processes that perturb development in autism and affect neural communication, reflected in altered patterns of attention, social interactions, and language.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 85 REFERENCES
Neuropathological findings in autism.
TLDR
It is anticipated that future neuropathological studies hold great promise, especially as new techniques such as design-based stereology and gene expression are increasingly implemented and combined, larger samples are analysed, and younger subjects free of comorbidities are investigated.
The Neuropathology of Autism: A Review
  • J. Pickett, E. London
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • 2005
TLDR
A review of recent progress in the understanding of autism based on investigations of donated human brain tissue summarizes the current data obtained from postmortem brain studies in the areas of stereology, neurotransmitter systems/synaptic processes, molecular mechanisms, and neuroimmunology.
Autism: neuropathology, alterations of the GABAergic system, and animal models.
TLDR
The recent linkages of neuroligin (NLGN), DLX, and engrailed 2 (En2) to autism offer possibilities for animal models, particularly if introducing the relevant, specific mutations can cause interesting pathology and behavior.
The neuropathology of autism - neuronal cytoarchitectural alterations and glial cell responses
Structural and pathological abnormalities affecting the brainstem (particularly the olivary nuclei), cerebellum, limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) and the neocortex have been described to
Neuroanatomic observations of the brain in autism: a review and future directions
  • M. Bauman, T. Kemper
  • Psychology, Medicine
    International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
  • 2005
TLDR
Findings in the limbic system, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex have shown small cell size and increased cell packing density at all ages, suggesting a pattern consistent with development curtailment, raising the possibility that the neuropathology of autism may represent an on‐going process.
Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism
TLDR
The presence of neuroglial and innate neuroimmune system activation in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autism is demonstrated, findings that support the view that neuroimmune abnormalities occur in the brain of autistic patients and may contribute to the diversity of the autistic phenotypes.
Minicolumnar pathology in autism
TLDR
Major differences between brains of autistic patients and controls in the number of minicolumns, in the horizontal spacing that separates cell columns, and in their internal structure are found.
Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: directions for research and targets for therapy*
TLDR
Animal models based on genetic, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioural manipulations offer the possibility of exploring developmental processes in detail, as do human studies addressing endophenotypes beyond the diagnosis itself.
Neuropathology of infantile autism
TLDR
The whole brain serial sections of nine well documented cases of infantile autism in comparison with identically processed ageand sex-matched controls were examined, finding evidence of a curtailment of maturation in the forebrain limbic system, abnormalities in the cerebellar circuits, and an unusual pattern of change of postnatal brain size.
Brain development in autism: early overgrowth followed by premature arrest of growth.
  • E. Courchesne
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews
  • 2004
TLDR
To discover the causes, neural substrates, early-warning signs and effective treatments of autism, future research should focus on elucidating the neurobiological defects that underlie brain growth abnormalities in autism that appear during these critical first years of life.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...