The neuronal encoding of information in the brain

  title={The neuronal encoding of information in the brain},
  author={Edmund T. Rolls and Alessandro Treves},
  journal={Progress in Neurobiology},
  • E. Rolls, A. Treves
  • Published 1 November 2011
  • Biology, Computer Science
  • Progress in Neurobiology

The neuronal representation of information in the human brain

The book Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain Probing Cognition edited by Fried, Rutishauser, Cerf and Kreiman is important, for it reviews what is now being discovered from recordings from single neurons in humans, performed as part of a programme of clinical treatment, and even a little evidence of this type may help to show how the detailed studies in the non-human primate cortex are providing evidence that is relevant to understanding the human brain.

The neuronal representation of information in the human brain

The responses of single neurons provide evidence that is essential to understanding what information is encoded in a brain area, and how it is encoded, for the information conveyed by a single neuron

Cortical coding

The encoding of information in the primate inferior temporal visual cortex, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula is described and these sparse distributed graded firing rate representations have major computational advantages for the brain including for language that is not met by local or ‘grandmother-cell’ representations.

Noise in Attractor Networks in the Brain Produced by Graded Firing Rate Representations

In integrate-and-fire simulations of an attractor decision-making network, it is shown that the noise is indeed greater for a given sparseness of the representation for graded, exponential, than for binary firing rate distributions, which has the advantage that it can increase the speed of operation of cortical circuitry.

A thesaurus for a neural population code

This work uses models of network encoding noise to learn a thesaurus for populations of neurons in the vertebrate retina responding to artificial and natural videos, measuring the similarity between population responses to visual stimuli based on the information they carry.

Sparse and distributed coding of episodic memory in neurons of the human hippocampus

The representation of episodic memory in hippocampal neurons of nine epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring as they discriminated between recently studied words and new words on a recognition test was investigated and found evidence consistent with sparse distributed coding in the hippocampus.

Emergence of transformation-tolerant representations of visual objects in rat lateral extrastriate cortex

It is found that neurons located along the progression of extrastriate areas that, in the rat brain, run laterally to primary visual cortex, encode object information, with a progressive functional specialization of neural responses along these areas.

The storage and recall of memories in the hippocampo-cortical system

  • E. Rolls
  • Biology, Psychology
    Cell and Tissue Research
  • 2017
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system as well as tests of the theory including hippocampal subregion analyses and hippocampal NMDA receptor knockouts are described and support the theory.

Two-population model for medial temporal lobe neurons: The vast majority are almost silent.

A new statistical method is proposed for analysis of the data that gives a more powerful way to analyze how close data are to the concept-cell idea, and shows that a conventional model where a single sparsity is postulated for all neurons gives an extremely poor fit to the data.



Information encoding in the inferior temporal visual cortex: contributions of the firing rates and the correlations between the firing of neurons

Almost all the information about which of 20 stimuli had been shown in a visual fixation task was present in the number of spikes emitted by each neuron, with stimulus-dependent cross-correlation effects adding for most sets of simultaneously recorded neurons almost no additional information.

The relative advantages of sparse versus distributed encoding for associative neuronal networks in the brain

The extent to which this statement is valid in general is discussed here, by considering some simple formal models of associative memory which include different neurobiological constraints.

Information encoding and the responses of single neurons in the primate temporal visual cortex.

Analysis of spike trains of single neurons recorded in the temporal lobe visual cortical areas of rhesus macaques provided evidence that a short period of firing taken close to the start of the neuronal response provides a reasonable proportion of the total information that would be available if a long period of neuronal firing were utilized.

Information encoding in short firing rate epochs by single neurons in the primate temporal visual cortex

It is found that at least for rapid object recognition, each cortical stage provides information to the next in a short period of 20–50 msec, does not rely on temporal encoding, and completes sufficient computation to provide an output to thenext stage in this same 20- to 50-msec period.

Object perception in natural scenes: encoding by inferior temporal cortex simultaneously recorded neurons.

The quantitatively small contribution of spike timing to the overall information available in spike patterns suggests that information encoding about which stimulus was shown by inferior temporal neurons is achieved mainly by rate coding, making spike counts an efficient population code with a high encoding capacity.

Firing Rate Distributions and Efficiency of Information Transmission of Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons to Natural Visual Stimuli

It is shown that the neurons are moderately efficient at transmitting information but not optimally efficient, and an alternative simple model of spike count distributions is developed.

Information flow and temporal coding in primate pattern vision

Time-resolved calculations of the information transmitted about visual patterns by neurons in primary visual and inferior temporal cortices impose strong constraints on the codes used by these neurons.

Decoding cortical neuronal signals: Network models, information estimation and spatial tuning

It is found that each neuron encodes information about many features at multiple scales in the primary visual cortex of awake monkeys, and that a feed-forward neural network proved to be the best of these models.

Spike-based strategies for rapid processing

The Variable Discharge of Cortical Neurons: Implications for Connectivity, Computation, and Information Coding

It is suggested that quantities are represented as rate codes in ensembles of 50–100 neurons, which implies that single neurons perform simple algebra resembling averaging, and that more sophisticated computations arise by virtue of the anatomical convergence of novel combinations of inputs to the cortical column from external sources.