Nodular ganglioneuroblastoma is characterized by a macroscopic nodule of neuroblastoma within a ganglioneuromatous component. These two components have been considered to originate from separate clones, with the neuroblastoma clone accounting for the clinical behavior of nodular ganglioneuroblastoma. In order to investigate the clonal origin of the cellular components (neuroblasts, ganglion cells, and Schwann cells) of nodular ganglioneuroblastoma, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from eight cases were analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism array and in situ hybridization. DNA was extracted separately from neuroblastomatous and ganglioneuromatous areas. By in situ hybridization, MYCN gain (4–10 gene copies/nucleus) was detected in 7/8 neuroblastoma samples. In ganglioneuromatous regions, gains were also detected in ganglion cells but not in Schwann cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism array studies identified chromosome losses (11q and 14q) and gains (12, 13q, 17q and 18q) in the neuroblastoma component, whereas the ganglioneuromatous component showed fewer or no genetic alterations. There were no unique copy number changes distinguishing nodular ganglioneuroblastoma from other subtypes of neuroblastoma. By in situ hybridization, ganglion cells but not Schwann cells showed the same alterations detected in neuroblasts. Thus, neuroblasts and ganglion cells in nodular ganglioneuroblastoma are genetically related and may arise from the same clone. In contrast, the Schwann cells have a different origin and may be derived from a non-neoplastic neural crest precursor. Our results suggest that the clinical behavior of nodular ganglioneuroblastoma cannot be explained by the presence of separate clones with distinct genetic signatures.