The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?

@article{Dudai2004TheNO,
  title={The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?},
  author={Yadin Dudai},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  year={2004},
  volume={55},
  pages={
          51-86
        }
}
  • Y. Dudai
  • Published 12 January 2004
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
Consolidation is the progressive postacquisition stabilization of long-term memory. The term is commonly used to refer to two types of processes: synaptic consolidation, which is accomplished within the first minutes to hours after learning and occurs in all memory systems studied so far; and system consolidation, which takes much longer, and in which memories that are initially dependent upon the hippocampus undergo reorganization and may become hippocampal-independent. The textbook account of… 
The restless engram: consolidations never end.
  • Y. Dudai
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2012
TLDR
Recent advances in consolidation research, including the reconsolidation of long-term memory items, the brain mechanisms of transformation of the content and of cue-dependency of memory items over time, as well as the role of rest and sleep in consolidating and shaping memories are focused on.
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Memory consolidation is a multifaceted concept. At a minimum, it refers to both cellular consolidation and systems consolidation. Cellular consolidation takes place in the hours after learning,
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TLDR
A framework model is proposed, which interprets reconsolidation as a manifestation of lingering consolidation, rather than recapitulation of a process that had already come to a closure, which reflects on the nature of consolidation in general and makes predictions that could guide further research.
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TLDR
The results obtained in this report with an invertebrate model represent additional evidences supporting the view that some molecular mechanisms subserving different memory phases could be the basic tools employed by phylogenetically disparate animals.
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TLDR
It is proposed that retrieval makes the consolidated memory labile and that a second consolidation round is required to stabilize the retrieved memory.
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TLDR
Evidence is provided in support of the transformation hypothesis, which is advanced as a framework for unifying the seemingly disparate results of studies of anterograde and retrograde memory in the animal and human literatures.
emory formation and long-term retention in humans and animals : onvergence towards a transformation account of ippocampal – neocortical interactions
Historically, the hippocampus has been viewed as a temporary memory structure. Consistent with the central premise of standard consolidation theory (SCT), a memory is initially hippocampus-dependent
Consolidation and reconsolidation share behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms
TLDR
It is found that reconsolidation does occur after reactivation in visual perceptual learning14–25, a type of skill learning, in humans, and changes in behavioural performance, as well as in concentrations in the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and in the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), in early visual areas exhibit similar time courses during consolidation and reconsideration.
Hippocampal-neocortical interactions in memory formation, consolidation, and reconsolidation.
This review, focusing on work using animals, updates a theoretical approach whose aim is to translate neuropsychological ideas about the psychological and anatomical organization of memory into the
Memory consolidation.
TLDR
System consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus.
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References

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TLDR
It is shown that consolidation of a motor skill was disrupted when a second motor task was learned immediately after the first, indicating that motor memories, which do not depend on the medial temporal lobe, can be transformed by a similar process of consolidation.
The consolidation of new but not reactivated memory requires hippocampal C/EBPβ
TLDR
It is shown that consolidation but not reconsolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory requires the expression of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in the hippocampus, an evolutionarily conserved genetic marker that has a selective role in the consolidation of new but not reactivated memories inThe hippocampus.
Time-Dependent Processes in Memory Storage
TLDR
The findings indicate that the long-lasting trace of an experience is not completely fixed, consolidated, or coded at the time of the experience, and that any search for the engram or the basis of memory is not going to be successful.
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TLDR
It is shown that intra-hippocampal infusions of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin caused amnesia for a consolidated hippocampal-dependent contextual fear memory, but only if the memory was reactivated prior to infusion.
Molecular bases of long-term memories: a question of persistence
  • Y. Dudai
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2002
TLDR
Rened interest is focused on the possibility that some long-term memories consolidate anew with retrieval, and could, under certain conditions, become transiently shaky in this period of reconsolidation.
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TLDR
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Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
TLDR
It is shown that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning.
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TLDR
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A simple neural network model is inspired that produces behavior consistent with experimental data and makes ideas about memory consolidation more concrete about how memory consolidation might actually occur.
Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex
TLDR
The hippocampal formation and related structures are involved in certain forms of memory (e.g. autobiographical episodic and spatial memory) for as long as they exist and contribute to the transformation and stabilization of other form of memory stored elsewhere in the brain.
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