The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic

@article{Hall2000TheNC,
  title={The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic},
  author={Brian K. Hall},
  journal={Evolution \& Development},
  year={2000},
  volume={2}
}
  • B. Hall
  • Published 1 February 2000
  • Biology
  • Evolution & Development
Next to cells, germ layers—the fundamental embryonic celllayers from which tissues and organs form—are the mostlong-standing units of structural organization of the embryosof multicellular animals (metazoans). First identified inchicken embryos by Pander in 1817, the history of germ lay-ers through the nineteenth century was one of increasing ap-preciation of their generality and importance:• layers equivalent to those in the chick were found byRathke (1825) in a decapod crustacean;• von Baer… 
Germ layers, the neural crest and emergent organization in development and evolution
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The discovery that ectodermal neural crest gave rise to mesenchyme and the controversy generated by that finding are discussed, as well as germ layers (including the neural crest) as emergent levels of organization in animal development and evolution that facilitated major developmental and evolutionary change.
Germ Layers
TLDR
All other animals are triploblastic, as endoderm and ectoderm interact to produce a third germ layer, called mesoderm, which will give rise to every organ in the body.
Sources 1
TLDR
All other animals are triploblastic, as endoderm and ectoderm interact to produce a third germ layer, called mesoderm, which will give rise to every organ in the body.
Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical debates and current perspectives.
TLDR
This chapter describes how discussions surrounding the neural crest threatened the germ layer theory, upended traditional schemes of vertebrate head organization, challenged assumptions about morphological conservation and homology, and redefined concepts on mechanisms of craniofacial patterning.
It's about time for neural crest
TLDR
Buitrago-Delgado et al. (3) provide further support for the statement that neural crest cells uniquely retain pluripotent stem cell programming until later in development than the three classic germ layers.
The neural crest and neural crest cells: discovery and significance for theories of embryonic organization
  • B. Hall
  • Biology
    Journal of Biosciences
  • 2008
TLDR
An overview of the major phases of investigation into the neural crest and the major players involved is provided, how the origin of the Neural crest relates to theorigin of the nervous system in vertebrate embryos is discussed, the impact on the germ-layer theory of the discovery of the neural peak and of secondary neurulation are discussed, and evidence ofThe neural crest as the fourth germ layer is presented.
The Generation of a Candidate Axial Precursor in Three Dimensional Aggregates of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
TLDR
A novel culture system of small, threedimensional aggregates of ESCs (gastruloids) that can recreate the events of early post-implantation development, including axial elongation morphogenesis is presented.
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