The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic

@article{Hall2000TheNC,
  title={The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic},
  author={Brian K. Hall},
  journal={Evolution \& Development},
  year={2000},
  volume={2}
}
  • B. Hall
  • Published 2000
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution & Development
Next to cells, germ layers—the fundamental embryonic celllayers from which tissues and organs form—are the mostlong-standing units of structural organization of the embryosof multicellular animals (metazoans). First identified inchicken embryos by Pander in 1817, the history of germ lay-ers through the nineteenth century was one of increasing ap-preciation of their generality and importance:• layers equivalent to those in the chick were found byRathke (1825) in a decapod crustacean;• von Baer… Expand
Germ layers, the neural crest and emergent organization in development and evolution
  • B. Hall
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Genesis
  • 2018
TLDR
The discovery that ectodermal neural crest gave rise to mesenchyme and the controversy generated by that finding are discussed, as well as germ layers (including the neural crest) as emergent levels of organization in animal development and evolution that facilitated major developmental and evolutionary change. Expand
Germ Layers
A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the formation of all organs and tissues. All animals, except perhaps sponges, formExpand
Sources 1
A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the formation of all organs and tissues. All animals, except perhaps sponges, formExpand
Neural crest cell evolution: how and when did a neural crest cell become a neural crest cell.
TLDR
The potential origins of NCC and how they evolved to contribute to nearly all tissues and organs throughout the body are discussed, based on paleontological evidence together with an evaluation of the evolution of molecules involved in NCC development and their migratory cell paths. Expand
Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical debates and current perspectives.
TLDR
This chapter describes how discussions surrounding the neural crest threatened the germ layer theory, upended traditional schemes of vertebrate head organization, challenged assumptions about morphological conservation and homology, and redefined concepts on mechanisms of craniofacial patterning. Expand
It's about time for neural crest
TLDR
Buitrago-Delgado et al. (3) provide further support for the statement that neural crest cells uniquely retain pluripotent stem cell programming until later in development than the three classic germ layers. Expand
The neural crest and neural crest cells: discovery and significance for theories of embryonic organization
  • B. Hall
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Biosciences
  • 2008
TLDR
An overview of the major phases of investigation into the neural crest and the major players involved is provided, how the origin of the Neural crest relates to theorigin of the nervous system in vertebrate embryos is discussed, the impact on the germ-layer theory of the discovery of the neural peak and of secondary neurulation are discussed, and evidence ofThe neural crest as the fourth germ layer is presented. Expand
Sequence alteration in the enhancer contributes to the heterochronic Sox9 expression in marsupial cranial neural crest.
TLDR
The modification of the E3 enhancer sequence in the marsupial ancestor would have promoted the early expression of Sox9 in the neural border, facilitating the early formation of the cranial neural crest cells and the subsequent heterochronic development of the jaw primordia. Expand
The Generation of a Candidate Axial Precursor in Three Dimensional Aggregates of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
TLDR
A novel culture system of small, threedimensional aggregates of ESCs (gastruloids) that can recreate the events of early post-implantation development, including axial elongation morphogenesis is presented. Expand
Taking the Middle Road: Vertebrate Mesoderm Formation and the Blastula-Gastrula Transition
TLDR
Mesoderm differentiation mechanisms validate theoretical models of embryonic patterning from the pre-molecular era and a reconsideration of conventional axes reveals a common vertebrate fate specification map that is coordinated by gradients of ligand signaling. Expand
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