The netrins define a family of axon outgrowth-promoting proteins homologous to C. elegans UNC-6

@article{Serafini1994TheND,
  title={The netrins define a family of axon outgrowth-promoting proteins homologous to C. elegans UNC-6},
  author={Tito A. Serafini and Timothy E. Kennedy and Michael J. Gaiko and Christine Mirzayan and Thomas M. Jessell and Marc Tessier‐Lavigne},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1994},
  volume={78},
  pages={409-424}
}
In vertebrates, commissural axons pioneer a circumferential pathway to the floor plate at the ventral midline of the embryonic spinal cord. Floor plate cells secrete a diffusible factor that promotes the outgrowth of commissural axons in vitro. We have purified from embryonic chick brain two proteins, netrin-1 and netrin-2, that each possess commissural axon outgrowth-promoting activity, and we have also identified a distinct activity that potentiates their effects. Cloning of cDNAs encoding… 
Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord
TLDR
It is shown that netrin-1 is a chemotropic factor expressed by floor plate cells and suggested that the two netrin proteins guide commissural axons in the developing spinal cord.
Netrin-1 Is Required for Commissural Axon Guidance in the Developing Vertebrate Nervous System
TLDR
Results establish netrin-1 as a guidance cue that likely collaborates with other diffusible cues to guide axons in vivo and evidence is provided for a distinct trochlear axon chemorepellent produced by floor plate cells.
Floor plate-derived netrin-1 is dispensable for commissural axon guidance
TLDR
The classical view that attraction of commissural axons is mediated by a gradient of floor-plate-derived netrin-1 is inaccurate and that netin-1 primarily acts locally by promoting growth cone adhesion is shown.
F-spondin is a contact-repellent molecule for embryonic motor neurons
TLDR
It is demonstrated that outgrowth of embryonic motor axons also is inhibited by F-spondin protein in a contact-repulsion fashion, suggesting that the processed carboxyl-half protein that contains the thrombospondin type 1 repeats is more prominent in inhibiting outgrowth.
Draxin, a Repulsive Guidance Protein for Spinal Cord and Forebrain Commissures
TLDR
Draxin is a previously unknown chemorepulsive axon guidance molecule required for the development of spinal cord and forebrain commissures and is identified as a secreted protein that shares no homology with known guidance cues.
ENU-3 is a new player in UNC-6/Netrin directed axon outgrowth and guidance in C. elegans
TLDR
The gene encoding the novel protein ENU-3 was identified in a mutant that enhanced the axon outgrowth defects of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons in a strain lacking functional UNC-5.
ENU-3 is a novel outgrowth and guidance protein in c. elegans
During the development of the nervous system, the migration of many cells and axons is guided by extracellular molecules. These molecules bind to receptors at the tips of the growth cones of
Netrin-1: diversity in development.
TLDR
Since then, Netrin-1 has been found to be a critical component of embryonic development with functions in axon guidance, cell migration, morphogenesis and angiogenesis, and plays a role in the adult brain, suggesting that manipulating netrin signals may have novel therapeutic applications.
ENU-3 is a novel motor axon outgrowth and guidance protein in C. elegans.
TLDR
It is concluded that ENU-3 is a novel C. elegans protein that affects both motor axon outgrowth and guidance that is expressed in the PVT interneuron and is weakly expressed in many cell bodies along the ventral cord.
Guidance of Circumferentially Growing Axons by Netrin-Dependent and -Independent Floor Plate Chemotropism in the Vertebrate Brain
TLDR
Results suggest that netrin-1 functions as a global guidance cue for attraction to the midline, and floor plate-mediated chemorepulsion may also operate generally to direct dorsal migrations, but its molecular basis may involve bothNetrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
UNC-6, a laminin-related protein, guides cell and pioneer axon migrations in C. elegans
TLDR
It is proposed that UNC-6 is a component of an extracellular matrix cue that guides dorsoventral migrations on the epidermis that guides pioneer axons and migrating cells along the body wall in C. elegans.
Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord
TLDR
It is shown that netrin-1 is a chemotropic factor expressed by floor plate cells and suggested that the two netrin proteins guide commissural axons in the developing spinal cord.
Spatial regulation of axonal glycoprotein expression on subsets of embryonic spinal neurons
TLDR
TAG-1 is immunochemically distinct from the cell adhesion molecules N-CAM and L1 (NILE) and is expressed on commissural and motor neurons over the period of initial axon extension, evidence that axonal guidance and pathway selection in vertebrates may be regulated in part by the transient and selective expression of distinct surface glycoproteins on subsets of developing neurons.
Orientation of commissural axons in vitro in response to a floor plate-derived chemoattractant.
TLDR
Observations support the idea that the guidance of commissural axons to the ventral midline of the spinal cord results in part from the secretion of a chemoattractant by the floor plate.
Chemotropic guidance of developing axons in the mammalian central nervous system
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the rat floor-plate cells secrete a diffusible factor(s) that influences the pattern and orientation of commissural axon growth in vitro without affecting other embryonic spinal cord axons, which support the hypothesis that chemotropic mechanisms guide developing axons to their intermediate targets in the vertebrate CNS.
An experimental analysis of in vivo guidance cues used by axons of spinal interneurons in the chick embryo: evidence for chemotropism and related guidance mechanisms
  • H. Yaginuma, R. Oppenheim
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1991
TLDR
The pattern of axonal outgrowth was examined and it was observed that circumferential axons near the junction between rotated graft (RG) and host cord changed their course so as to project toward the ectopic floor plate, which supports the notion that the floor plate exerts a chemotropic-like effect on the directional projection of circumferences.
Guidance of commissural growth cones at the floor plate in embryonic rat spinal cord.
TLDR
The reorientation of axons in register with the floor plate boundary and the change in the morphological properties of commissural growth cones as they traverse the midline suggest that the floor Plate may act as a guidepost with functions similar to cells that have been implicated in axon guidance in invertebrates.
Target attraction: Are developing axons guided by chemotropism?
TLDR
The cellular targets of several different classes of developing neurons have been shown to secrete as yet unidentified diffusible factors that can orient axons, and the potential contribution of chemotropism to the establishment of axonal projection patterns in vertebrates is discussed.
Control of cell pattern in the neural tube: Regulation of cell differentiation by dorsalin-1, a novel TGFβ family member
TLDR
It is suggested that dsl-1 regulates the differentiation of cell types along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube, acting in conjunction with distinct ventralizing signals from the notochord and floor plate.
The unc-5, unc-6, and unc-40 genes guide circumferential migrations of pioneer axons and mesodermal cells on the epidermis in C. elegans
TLDR
It is proposed that two opposite, adhesive gradients guide circumferential migrations on the epidermis and that the unc-5, unc-6, and unc-40 genes may encode these adhesion molecules or their cellular receptors.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...