The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates

  title={The nervous system of the lophophore in the ctenostome Amathia gracilis provides insight into the morphology of ancestral ectoprocts and the monophyly of the lophophorates},
  author={Elena N. Temereva and Igor A. Kosevich},
  journal={BMC Evolutionary Biology},
BackgroundThe Bryozoa (=Ectoprocta) is a large group of bilaterians that exhibit great variability in the innervation of tentacles and in the organization of the cerebral ganglion. Investigations of bryozoans from different groups may contribute to the reconstruction of the bryozoan nervous system bauplan. A detailed investigation of the polypide nervous system of the ctenostome bryozoan Amathia gracilis is reported here.ResultsThe cerebral ganglion displays prominent zonality and has at least… 
Organization of the lophophoral nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoans confirms the relationship of the Bryozoa and Brachiozoa
The phylogeny of bryozoans is ambiguous and apparently cannot be resolved by molecular methods alone. Morphological data from previously unstudied species may help establishing relationships between
Innervation of the lophophore suggests that the phoronid Phoronis ovalis is a link between phoronids and bryozoans
The validity of the Lophophorata as a monophyletic group remains controversial. New data on the innervation of the lophophore, which is a unique feature of the lophophorates, may help clarify the
Unusual lophophore innervation in ctenostome Flustrellidra hispida (Bryozoa).
The presence of the outer nerve ring participating in the innervation of tentacles makes the F. hispida lophophore nervous system particularly similar to the lophophile nervous system of phoronids, which allows to suggest that it may reflect the ancestral state for all bryozoans.
Peculiarities of Tentacle Innervation of Flustrellidra hispida and Evolution of Lophophore in Bryozoa
The evolutionary transformation from a hypothetical phoronida-like ancestor lophophore bearing a prominent outer nerve ring with numerous tentacle nerves emanating from it, to the complex bell-shaped lophphore of F. hispida with a well-pronounced outer nervous ring bearing a few Tentacle nerves is suggested.
The neuroanatomy of Barentsia discreta (Entoprocta, Coloniales) reveals significant differences between bryozoan and entoproct nervous systems
The neuroanatomy of the colonial Barentsia discreta is generally similar to that of solitary entoprocts but differs in the anatomy and ultrastructure of the ganglion, the number of neurite bundles in the calyx, and the distribution of serotonin in the nerve elements.
The nervous system of the most complex lophophore provides new insights into the evolution of Brachiopoda
The innervation of the most complex lophophore (the plectolophe) of the rhynchonelliform species Coptothyris grayi is described, which has undergone simplification, i.e., the absence of the accessory brachial nerve, which is apparently correlated with a reduction in the complexity of the lphophore’s musculature.
Neuroanatomy of Hyalinella punctata: Common patterns and new characters in phylactolaemate bryozoans
The nervous system of Hyalinella punctata is characterized with immunocytochemical techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the first time, finding that having a diffuse nerve plexus may represent an ancestral feature for freshwater bryozoans.
The non-brain anterior nerve center and tentacle crown structure of Owenia borealis (Annelida, Oweniidae): the evolution of the nervous system and tentacles in Bilateria
Results suggest that the ultra anatomy of that plexus brain in O. borealis and other oweniids with tentacles might be a stratified neuroepithelium, which could reflect the simplification of structure of the anterior nerve center in some bilaterian lineages.
The first data on the innervation of the lophophore in the rhynchonelliform brachiopod Hemithiris psittacea: what is the ground pattern of the lophophore in lophophorates?
The innervation of the lophophore in the rhynchonelliform Hemithiris psittacea differs from that in the inarticulate Lingula anatina in several ways and is suggested to have had a simple shape but many nerve elements.
First data on the organization of the nervous system in juveniles of Novocrania anomala (Brachiopoda, Craniiformea)
The results suggest that ‘phoronid-like’ non-specialized tentacles may be regarded as the ancestral type of tentacles for brachiopods and probably for all lophophorates.


The nervous system of Paludicella articulata - first evidence of a neuroepithelium in a ctenostome ectoproct
The situation in P. articulata corresponds to the situation found in other ctenostomes and supports the notion that four tentacle nerves are the ancestral configuration in Ectoprocta and not six as proposed earlier.
Myoanatomy and serotonergic nervous system of the ctenostome Hislopia malayensis: evolutionary trends in bodyplan patterning of ectoprocta
The apertural muscles show high similarity within Ectoprocta and always consist of two sets of muscles, while Gymnolaemates and Phylactolemates show clear differences within their digestive tract musculature.
Microarchitecture and function of the lophophore in the bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana
The architecture and function of the lophophore of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana (Moll) are described, including some new features not previously discovered in bryozoans. The nature of
Immunocytochemistry and metamorphic fate of the larval nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum (Ectoprocta: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata)
The data show that the larval neuroanatomy and the processes that underlie the reorganization of larval organ systems during metamorphosis may vary much more among lophotrochozoan taxa than previously thought.
Development of the nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophotrochozoa, Phoronida) reveals both deuterostome- and trochozoan-like features
Serotonin-like flask-shaped cells such as the ones described herein for Phoronopsis harmeri are found in the majority of lophotrochozoan larvae and therefore most likely belong to the ground pattern of the last common lophOTrochozosan ancestor.
Organization and metamorphic remodeling of the nervous system in juveniles of Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): insights into evolution of the bilaterian nervous system
The metamorphic remodeling of the phoronid nervous system occurs in two different ways: with complete or incomplete destruction of organ systems, and the separation of bryozoans from Lophophorata and establish a need for new data on the organization of the brachiopod nervous system.
The serotonin-lir nervous system of the Bryozoa (Lophotrochozoa): a general pattern in the Gymnolaemata and implications for lophophore evolution of the phylum
The serotonin-lir nervous system in the Bryozoa shows a consistent pattern among its different clades with few deviations.
Organization of the coelomic system in Phoronis australis (Lophotrochozoa: Phoronida) and consideration of the coelom in the lophophorates
Which type of coelomic system organization is plesiomorphic for phoronids is determined by transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction and the tripartite coelom appears to be the plesiomorphy for the Brachiozoa.
L'innervation du lophophore chez le Bryozoaire chilostome Electra pilosa (L.)
  • G. Lutaud
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie
  • 2004
The analysis of the pattern of the peripharyngial nervous belt shows a precise organisation and the intrication of the connections which coordinate the tentacles and link the lophophore set to other pathways of general innervation.
Ganglion ultrastructure in phylactolaemate Bryozoa: Evidence for a neuroepithelium
A comparison with potential outgroups reveals that a neuroepithelial ganglion in the subtaxon Phylactolaemata is at least derived, since a reliable phylogenetic system of the Bryozoa is missing, and a decision on whether such a ganglions is apomorphic for BryozOA or evolved within this taxon can hardly be made.