The necessity to revise Koch’s postulates and its application to infectious and non-infectious diseases: a mini-review

  title={The necessity to revise Koch’s postulates and its application to infectious and non-infectious diseases: a mini-review},
  author={Hasan Hosainzadegan and Rovshan Khalilov and Pourya Gholizadeh},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology \& Infectious Diseases},
Advances in the science have promoted all aspects of human’s life; these, in turn, have changed many principles and scientific postulates. Koch’s postulates, since the beginning of their implementation, have been one of the important subjects involving complications and misinterpretations regarding the causal relationship of microbe-hosts. These postulates have been shown not to be correct in some cases including the inability of some microbes to grow in the culture medium, viruses, or… 

Identification of a new orthonairovirus associated with human febrile illness in China

A novel orthonairovirus is identified, designated Sōnglǐng virus (SGLV), from patients who reported being bitten by a tick in China, and it was shown to be associated with human febrile illness in northeastern China.

Oil Palm Fatal Yellowing (FY), a Disease with an Elusive Causal Agent

An overview of the history of this disease and the several efforts done to fulfill Koch’s postulates over the last 40 years are presented, besides discussing recent studies that revisited this subject using some omics technics.

Human bocavirus 1 is a genuine pathogen for acute respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients determined by nucleic acid, antigen, and serology tests

The combination results of nucleic acid, antigen, and serology tests answered that HBoV1 is a genuine pathogen for ARTI in pediatric patients.


Phytopathogenic fungi attack many agricultural crops such as yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hil.). An innovative alternative for pest control is the use of biocontrol fungi of Trichoderma

Applying Concepts of Causal Inference to Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis.

  • A. O'Connor
  • Philosophy
    The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice
  • 2021

Trachymyrmex septentrionalis ants promote fungus garden hygiene using Trichoderma-derived metabolite cues

The logic of Koch’s postulates is applied using environmental fungal community genomic sequencing, fungal isolation, and in vitro infection experiments to establish Trichoderma spp.

Phenotype-Based Threat Assessment.

PathEngine is developed, a machine learning strategy that features the use of phenotypic hallmarks of pathogenesis to assess pathogenic threat and establishes a phenotype-based, sequence-independent pipeline for threat assessment.



From Koch's Postulates to Biofilm Theory. The Lesson of Bill Costerton

This Editorial and the entire 2012 issue “Focus on Implant Infections” are dedicated to the memory of Bill Costerton, recognized worldwide as the Father of Biofilms for his innovation and body of work on infections caused by sessile bacteria.

Cell Wall-Deficient Bacteria as a Cause of Infections: A Review of the Clinical Significance

The evidence for the clinical significance of CWDB in disease is not compelling and a number of case reports and laboratory studies suggest some disease associations, however.

The Role of Biofilms: Are We Hitting the Right Target?

Biofilm phenotype bacteria predominate on the surface of wounds, and biofilm-based management improves wound healing outcomes, indicating that biofilm is the right target for managing the bioburden barrier of chronic wounds.

The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines.

New insights into bacterial persistence in reactive arthritis.

Both modes of persistence, cell wall-deficient state of bacteria and bacterial biofilms, deserve rheumatologists' attention, as their investigation, applying modern standardized methods, may contribute to the elaboration of new beneficial schemes of antibacterial ReA therapy.

L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life

L-forms provide an interesting model system for studying early steps in the evolution of cellular life, and are potentially important in biotechnology, because lack of a wall can be advantageous in a range of production or strain improvement applications.

Towards diagnostic guidelines for biofilm-associated infections.

This review is designed to give an overview of biofilm-associated infections (BAI) and to propose a platform for further discussion that includes clinicians, medical microbiologists, and biofilm researchers who are stakeholders in advancing the scientific pursuit of better diagnosis and treatment of BAI to mitigate their human and healthcare costs.

Abnormal morphology of bacteria in the sputa of patients treated with antibiotics

It was suspected that the low dose of cefazolin and the intermittent therapy with ampicillin resulted in a subminimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotic in the respiratory tract which induced the the abnormal morphology of the bacteria observed in the sputum of both patients.

Bacterial L‐forms require peptidoglycan synthesis for cell division

  • J. Casadesús
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2007
The classical definition of L‐forms as cell‐wall‐less bacterial variants may need a revision to accomodate recent observations, as genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that E. coli L‐ forms induced by β‐lactam antibiotics do contain small amounts of peptidoglycan, essential for their growth and probably required for septum formation.