The natural selection of altruistic traits

@article{Boehm1999TheNS,
  title={The natural selection of altruistic traits},
  author={Christopher Boehm},
  journal={Human Nature},
  year={1999},
  volume={10},
  pages={205-252}
}
  • C. Boehm
  • Published 1 September 1999
  • Biology
  • Human Nature
Proponents of the standard evolutionary biology paradigm explain human “altruism” in terms of either nepotism or strict reciprocity. On that basis our underlying nature is reduced to a function of inclusive fitness: human nature has to be totally selfish or nepotistic. Proposed here are three possible paths to giving costly aid to nonrelatives, paths that are controversial because they involve assumed pleiotropic effects or group selection. One path is pleiotropic subsidies that help to extend… 
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