The naming of the cranial nerves: A historical review

  title={The naming of the cranial nerves: A historical review},
  author={Matthew C. Davis and Christoph J. Griessenauer and Anand N. Bosmia and R. Shane Tubbs and Mohammadali M. Shoja},
  journal={Clinical Anatomy},
The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid‐20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist… 
The cranial nerve nomenclature - Historical vignette.
The literature is reviewed to present an overview of the remarkable historical journey that brought the authors' forefathers to trace the pathway of individual Cranial nerves from origin to destination and the evolution of the naming of the cranial nerves.
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The primitive organization of the Cranial nerves has been used to support the historical studies of Vesalius, Willis and Soemmerring for the understanding of the nowadays subdivision of the cranial nerves.
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A detailed study of the intracranial course of the sixth cranial nerve, determination of occurrence of its particular anatomical variations, as well as presentation of some essential anatomical conditions which may conduce to CN VI palsy are presented.
The emergence of modern muscle names: the contribution to the foundation of systematic terminology of Vesalius, Sylvius, and Bauhin
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  • Philosophy, Medicine
    Anatomical Science International
  • 2018
The objective of this literary research paper was to ascertain the founder of modern muscle terminology, and it was shown that three early modern anatomists, Vesalius, Sylvius, and Bauhin, contributed to the development of modern Muscle terminology.
A contextual thematic analysis of the accessory nerve in Scottish historical medical collections of the Royal Colleges of Edinburgh and Glasgow
A contextual historical analysis of the depictions and descriptions of the accessory nerve could provide insight into the disparity in the current descriptions.
A brief history of topographical anatomy
  • S. Standring
  • Computer Science, Medicine
    Journal of anatomy
  • 2016
This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco‐Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery
Thomas Willis, a pioneer in translational research in anatomy (on the 350th anniversary of Cerebri anatome)
The work of the English physician and anatomist Thomas Willis is reviewed, specifically with regard to the contents of his Cerebri anatome, which marked the transition between the mediaeval and modern notions of brain function.
Anatomy of nervous system and emergence of neuroscience: A chronological journey across centuries.
The present study aimed to document significant discoveries in this context in chronological order to establish the cascading pattern of advancement in knowledge.
The legacy of Syriac-Aramaic scholars in transmitting neurosurgical knowledge between Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The oldest known diagram of orbital anatomy is analyzed along with Hunayn Ibn Isshaq's genuine ideas on the optic nerve anatomy and pathology, optic chiasm, afferent pupillary reflex, and papilledema and venous congestion to elucidate the original contributions of the Syriac physicians to the field of neurological surgery.
Development of the Cranial Nerves
The development of the cranial nerves and their components are described and the development ofThe central nervous system, signaling molecules, and developmental abnormalities of the Cranial nerves are summarized.


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The present contribution adopts various points of view to discuss the terminology of the twelve nervi craniales. These are paired nerves and have dual names, terms with Roman ordinal numerals, i.e.,
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The enumerations of the modern 12 pairs of cranial nerves by a number of anatomists are reviewed in a continuous historical perspective using original texts and modern translations to describe individual structures for the first time.
The life and times of Jorjani are described and a translation and interpretations of his detailed descriptions of the cranial nerves are provided, which were written almost a millennium ago.
The legendary contributions of Thomas Willis (1621-1675): the arterial circle and beyond.
Thomas Willis established neurology as a distinct discipline and made significant original contributions to many related fields including anatomy, pathology, cardiology, endocrinology, and
Insights into neurologic localization by Rhazes, a medieval Islamic physician
Rhazes showed an outstanding clinical ability to localize lesions, prognosticate, and describe therapeutic options and reported clinical observations, emphasizing the link between the anatomic location of a lesion and the clinical signs.
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Based on the available evidence, the NT appears to be functional in adult humans and should be taught in medical schools and incorporated into anatomy/neuroanatomy textbooks.
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Investigating the etymology of some of the terms referring to the macroscopic anatomical structures of the skull and the intracranial cavity concluded that even without a deep knowledge of the Greek, Latin, or Arabic language, learning who described a particular structure and how they decided to name it makes the study of neuroanatomy more complete and fulfilling.
Galen on Anatomical Procedures: The Later Books
Galen was probably the greatest medical writer of antiquity and certainly the most prolific. His Anatomical Procedures (c. 200 CE) embodies the results of a lifetime of practical research; it is
Winslow's contribution to our understanding of the cervical portion of the sympathetic nervous system.
  • R. Olry
  • Medicine
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 1996
It appears that Winslow not only modified the terminology by replacing the term "intercostal nerve" by that of the "great sympathetic nerve", but also knew, with a few exceptions, the systematization of the cervical ganglia and their branches.
The role of Caspar Bartholin the Elder in the evolution of the terminology of the cranial nerves.
In the 17th century, the Bartholin family contributed greatly to the advancement of anatomical and medical science. Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585-1629) introduced the terms nervus olfactorius and