The multifaceted aspects of refractory lupus nephritis.

Abstract

The term refractory lupus nephritis is generally used to indicate cases that do not respond to traditional treatment. However, the clinical presentation of lupus nephritis is variable and the time to response depends on the typology of the underlying renal syndrome. The criteria and the time for response are different in lupus patients with nephritic flares, in those with nephrotic syndrome, and in those with asymptomatic renal disease. In this paper, we will focus on the clinical characteristics, the consequences, and the possible therapeutic approaches for patients with different forms of refractory lupus nephritis, defined on the basis of renal syndrome at presentation.

DOI: 10.1586/1744666X.2015.990883

Cite this paper

@article{Moroni2015TheMA, title={The multifaceted aspects of refractory lupus nephritis.}, author={Gabriella Moroni and Claudio Ponticelli}, journal={Expert review of clinical immunology}, year={2015}, volume={11 2}, pages={281-8} }