The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa

  title={The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa},
  author={Anna Olivieri and Alessandro Achilli and Maria Pala and Vincenza Battaglia and Simona Fornarino and Nadia Al-Zahery and Rosaria Scozzari and Fulvio Cruciani and Doron M Behar and Jean Michel Dugoujon and Clotilde Coudray and A. Silvana Santachiara‐Benerecetti and Ornella Semino and Hans-J{\"u}rgen Bandelt and Antonio Torroni},
  pages={1767 - 1770}
Sequencing of 81 entire human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging to haplogroups M1 and U6 reveals that these predominantly North African clades arose in southwestern Asia and moved together to Africa about 40,000 to 45,000 years ago. Their arrival temporally overlaps with the event(s) that led to the peopling of Europe by modern humans and was most likely the result of the same change in climate conditions that allowed humans to enter the Levant, opening the way to the colonization of both… 
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It is proposed that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size, and may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.
Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula
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Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate
  • Amanuel Beyin
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of evolutionary biology
  • 2011
The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5).
Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia
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The presence of R0a in Southwest Arabia in the Holocene at the nexus of a trading network that developed after ~3 ka between Africa and the Indian Ocean led to some gene flow even further afield, into Iran, Pakistan and India.
Mitochondrial DNA signals of late glacial recolonization of Europe from near eastern refugia.


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M is rendered the first genetic indicator for the hypothesized exit route from Africa through eastern Africa/western India, possibly the only successful early dispersal event of modern humans out of Africa.
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Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia
The archaeological and genetic evidence points to a single successful dispersal event, which took genetically and culturally modern populations fairly rapidly across southern and southeastern Asia into Australasia, and with only a secondary and later dispersal into Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography
The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East, and around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity.
Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool.
The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.
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mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion.
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