The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa

@article{Olivieri2006TheML,
  title={The mtDNA Legacy of the Levantine Early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa},
  author={Anna Olivieri and Alessandro Achilli and Maria Pala and Vincenza Battaglia and Simona Fornarino and Nadia Al-Zahery and Rosaria Scozzari and Fulvio Cruciani and Doron M Behar and Jean Michel Dugoujon and Clotilde Coudray and A. Silvana Santachiara‐Benerecetti and Ornella Semino and Hans-J{\"u}rgen Bandelt and Antonio Torroni},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={314},
  pages={1767 - 1770}
}
Sequencing of 81 entire human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging to haplogroups M1 and U6 reveals that these predominantly North African clades arose in southwestern Asia and moved together to Africa about 40,000 to 45,000 years ago. Their arrival temporally overlaps with the event(s) that led to the peopling of Europe by modern humans and was most likely the result of the same change in climate conditions that allowed humans to enter the Levant, opening the way to the colonization of both… 
Mitochondrial haplogroup U5b3: a distant echo of the epipaleolithic in Italy and the legacy of the early Sardinians.
The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa
TLDR
It is proposed that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size, and may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.
Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula
TLDR
The lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences in the Arabian Peninsula suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal route.
Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate
  • Amanuel Beyin
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of evolutionary biology
  • 2011
TLDR
The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5).
Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia
TLDR
This work presents an alternative model based on a combination of genetic analyses and recent archaeological evidence from South Asia and Africa that supports a coastally oriented dispersal of modern humans from eastern Africa to southern Asia ∼60–50 thousand years ago (ka).
Mapping human dispersals into the Horn of Africa from Arabian Ice Age refugia using mitogenomes
TLDR
The presence of R0a in Southwest Arabia in the Holocene at the nexus of a trading network that developed after ~3 ka between Africa and the Indian Ocean led to some gene flow even further afield, into Iran, Pakistan and India.
Mitochondrial DNA signals of late glacial recolonization of Europe from near eastern refugia.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes
TLDR
It is shown that mitochondrial DNA variation in isolated “relict” populations in southeast Asia supports the view that there was only a single dispersal from Africa, most likely via a southern coastal route, through India and onward into southeast Asia and Australasia.
Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa
TLDR
M is rendered the first genetic indicator for the hypothesized exit route from Africa through eastern Africa/western India, possibly the only successful early dispersal event of modern humans out of Africa.
Saami and Berbers--an unexpected mitochondrial DNA link.
TLDR
The sequencing of entire human mitochondrial DNAs belonging to haplogroup U reveals that this clade arose shortly after the "out of Africa" exit and rapidly radiated into numerous regionally distinct subclades, and reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers.
Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia
TLDR
The archaeological and genetic evidence points to a single successful dispersal event, which took genetically and culturally modern populations fairly rapidly across southern and southeastern Asia into Australasia, and with only a secondary and later dispersal into Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography
TLDR
The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East, and around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity.
Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool.
The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.
TLDR
It is shown that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago.
mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion.
TLDR
The data are in agreement with the view that the present Greenland Eskimos essentially descend from Alaskan Neo-Eskimos, and major mtDNA types shared between Na Dene and Eskimo are demonstrated.
Did Early Humans Go North or South?
TLDR
Two new studies of the mitochondrial DNA of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia and the Andaman islands suggest that the earliest humans took a southern route along the coastline of the Indian Ocean before fanning out over the rest of the world.
The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool.
TLDR
Findings have major implications for the origin of Europeans, since they attest that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area was indeed the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe from ~15,000 years ago.
...
...